This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then discuss a computable model that can explain most parts of the cognitive model and also interpret the descriptive model. In the computable model, a design process is regarded as an iterative logical process realized by abduction, deduction, and circumscription. We implemented a design simulator that can trace design processes in which design specifications and design solutions are gradually revised as the design proceeds.
This paper is aimed at furthering discussions about the properties which computational cognitive models of attentional control should have if they are meant to be applied in interactive human-computer systems, namely for predicting human attention shifts across control levels. The paper discusses a number of issues of attentional control and implications that follow for computational modeling. It concludes by proposing the term anticipatory cognitive computing for those computational approaches that incorporate cognitive processing mechanisms found to exist in humans and that employ these mechanisms to generate hypothesis about imminent human cognitive and external actions.
This paper presents the first functional evaluation of spontaneous, uncued retrieval from long-term memory in a cognitive architecture. The key insight is that current deliberate cued retrieval mechanisms require the agent to have knowledge of when and what to retrieve --- knowledge that may be missing or incorrect. Spontaneous uncued retrieval eliminates these requirements through automatic retrievals that use the agent's problem solving context as a heuristic for relevance, thus supplementing deliberate cued retrieval. Using constraints derived from this insight, we sketch the space of spontaneous retrieval mechanisms and describe an implementation of spontaneous retrieval in Soar together with an agent that takes advantage of that mechanism. Empirical evidence is provided in the Missing Link word-puzzle domain, where agents using spontaneous retrieval out-perform agents without that capability, leading us to conclude that spontaneous retrieval can be a useful mechanism and is worth further exploration.
Historically, AI research has understandably focused on those aspects of cognition that distinguish humans from other animals - in particular, our capacity for complex problem solving. However, with a few notable exceptions, narratives in popular media generally focus on those aspects of human experience that we share with other social animals: attachment, mating and child rearing, violence, group affiliation, and inter-group and inter-individual conflict. Moreover, the stories we tell often focus on the ways in which these processes break down. In this paper, I will argue that current agent architectures don't offer particularly good models of these phenomena, and discuss specific phenomena that I think it would be illuminating to understand at a computational level.