On the Semantics and Complexity of Probabilistic Logic Programs

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We examine the meaning and the complexity of probabilistic logic programs that consist of a set of rules and a set of independent probabilistic facts (that is, programs based on Sato's distribution semantics). We focus on two semantics, respectively based on stable and on well-founded models. We show that the semantics based on stable models (referred to as the "credal semantics") produces sets of probability measures that dominate infinitely monotone Choquet capacities; we describe several useful consequences of this result. We then examine the complexity of inference with probabilistic logic programs. We distinguish between the complexity of inference when a probabilistic program and a query are given (the inferential complexity), and the complexity of inference when the probabilistic program is fixed and the query is given (the query complexity, akin to data complexity as used in database theory). We obtain results on the inferential and query complexity for acyclic, stratified, and normal propositional and relational programs; complexity reaches various levels of the counting hierarchy and even exponential levels.

Ontology-Mediated Queries for Probabilistic Databases

AAAI Conferences

Probabilistic databases (PDBs) are usually incomplete, e.g., containing only the facts that have been extracted from the Web with high confidence. However, missing facts are often treated as being false, which leads to unintuitive results when querying PDBs. Recently, open-world probabilistic databases (OpenPDBs) were proposed to address this issue by allowing probabilities of unknown facts to take any value from a fixed probability interval. In this paper, we extend OpenPDBs by Datalog+/- ontologies, under which both upper and lower probabilities of queries become even more informative, enabling us to distinguish queries that were indistinguishable before. We show that the dichotomy between P and PP in (Open)PDBs can be lifted to the case of first-order rewritable positive programs (without negative constraints); and that the problem can become NP^PP-complete, once negative constraints are allowed. We also propose an approximating semantics that circumvents the increase in complexity caused by negative constraints.

Bayesian Networks Specified Using Propositional and Relational Constructs: Combined, Data, and Domain Complexity

AAAI Conferences

We examine the inferential complexity of Bayesian networks specified through logical constructs. We first consider simple propositional languages, and then move to relational languages. We examine both the combined complexity of inference (as network size and evidence size are not bounded) and the data complexity of inference (where network size is bounded); we also examine the connection to liftability through domain complexity. Combined and data complexity of several inference problems are presented, ranging from polynomial to exponential classes.

Open-World Probabilistic Databases

AAAI Conferences

Large-scale probabilistic knowledge bases are becoming increasingly important in academia and industry alike. They are constantly extended with new data, powered by modern information extraction tools that associate probabilities with database tuples. In this paper, we revisit the semantics underlying such systems. In particular, the closed-world assumption of probabilistic databases, that facts not in the database have probability zero, clearly conflicts with their everyday use. To address this discrepancy, we propose an open-world probabilistic database semantics, which relaxes the probabilities of open facts to intervals. While still assuming a finite domain, this semantics can provide meaningful answers when some probabilities are not precisely known. For this open world setting, we propose an efficient evaluation algorithm for unions of conjunctive queries. Our open-world algorithm incurs no overhead compared to closed-world reasoning and runs in time linear in the size of the database for tractable queries. All other queries are #P-hard, implying a data complexity dichotomy between linear time and #P. For queries involving negation, however, open-world reasoning can become NP-, or even NP^PP-hard. Finally, we discuss additional knowledge representation layers that can further strengthen open-world reasoning about big uncertain data.

Query Answering with Inconsistent Existential Rules under Stable Model Semantics

AAAI Conferences

Classical inconsistency-tolerant query answering relies on selecting maximal components of an ABox/database which are consistent with the ontology. However, some rules in ontologies might be unreliable if they are extracted from ontology learning or written by unskillful knowledge engineers. In this paper we present a framework of handling inconsistent existential rules under stable model semantics, which is defined by a notion called rule repairs to select maximal components of the existential rules. Surprisingly, for R-acyclic existential rules with R-stratified or guarded existential rules with stratified negations, both the data complexity and combined complexity of query answering under the rule repair semantics remain the same as that under the conventional query answering semantics. This leads us to propose several approaches to handle the rule repair semantics by calling answer set programming solvers. An experimental evaluation shows that these approaches have good scalability of query answering under rule repairs on realistic cases.