Most planning formalisms allow instances with shortest plans of exponential length. While such instances are problematic, they are usually unavoidable and can occur in practice. There are several known cases of restricted planning problems where plans can be exponential but always have a compact (ie.
Coalition formation is an important capability of automated negotiation among self-interested agents. In order for coalitions to be stable, a key question that must be answered is how the gains from cooperation are to be distributed. Recent research has revealed that traditional solution concepts, such as the Shapley value, core, least core, and nucleolus, are vulnerable to various manipulations in open anonymous environments such as the Internet. These manipulations include submitting false names, collusion, and hiding some skills. To address this, a solution concept called the anonymityproof core, which is robust against such manipulations, was developed.
Causal discovery from a set of observations is one of the fundamental problems across several disciplines. For continuous variables, recently a number of causal discovery methods have demonstrated their effectiveness in distinguishing the cause from effect by exploring certain properties of the conditional distribution, but causal discovery on categorical data still remains to be a challenging problem, because it is generally not easy to find a compact description of the causal mechanism for the true causal direction. In this paper we make an attempt to find a way to solve this problem by assuming a two-stage causal process: the first stage maps the cause to a hidden variable of a lower cardinality, and the second stage generates the effect from the hidden representation. In this way, the causal mechanism admits a simple yet compact representation. We show that under this model, the causal direction is identifiable under some weak conditions on the true causal mechanism. We also provide an effective solution to recover the above hidden compact representation within the likelihood framework. Empirical studies verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach on both synthetic and real-world data.
Many search and security games played on a graph can be modeled as normal-form zero-sum games with strategies consisting of sequences of actions. The size of the strategy space provides a computational challenge when solving these games. This complexity is tackled either by using the compact representation of sequential strategies and linear programming, or by incremental strategy generation of iterative double-oracle methods. In this paper, we present novel hybrid of these two approaches: compact-strategy double-oracle (CS-DO) algorithm that combines the advantages of the compact representation with incremental strategy generation. We experimentally compare CS-DO with the standard approaches and analyze the impact of the size of the support on the performance of the algorithms.
Biological movement is built up of sub-blocks or motion primitives. Such primitives provide a compact representation of movement which is also desirable in robotic control applications. We analyse handwriting data to gain a better understanding of use of primitives and their timings in biological movements. Inference of the shape and the timing of primitives can be done using a factorial HMM based model, allowing the handwriting to be represented in primitive timing space. This representation provides a distribution of spikes corresponding to the primitive activations, which can also be modelled using HMM architectures.