Reports The first annual workshop on the role of AI in ambient intelligence was held in Riva de Garda, Italy, on August 29, 2006. The workshop was colocated with the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2006). It provided an opportunity for researchers in a variety of AI subfields together with representatives of commercial interests to explore ambient intelligence technology and applications. Ambient intelligence is an AIbased paradigm with a high potential to affect daily life in the near future. The broad idea is to enrich a space (such as a room, house, building, bus station, or a critical area in a hospital) with sensors tied to intelligent software, so that the people using the space can benefit from a responsive, even wise environment.
The first annual workshop on the role of AI in ambient intelligence was held in Riva de Garda, Italy, on August 29, 2006. The workshop was colocated with the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2006). It provided an opportunity for researchers in a variety of AI subfields together with representatives of commercial interests to explore ambient intelligence technology and applications.
This workshop has a special focus on the topic of spatio-temporal aspects of human activity interpretation, especially welcoming research concerned with monitoring and inter- pretation of people interactions, real-time commonsense situational awareness involving aspects such as scene perception and understanding, perceptual data analytics, and prediction and explanation-driven high-level control of autonomous systems. In this context, basic topics deemed important include activity and process models; behaviour and intention interpretation; spatial learning; modeling and reasoning about space, events, actions, interaction; spatio-temporal dynamics; and commonsense reasoning about spatio-temporal change.
The fourth Modeling and Reasoning in Context (MRC) workshop was held on August 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with the Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context, at Roskilde University, Denmark. This year's workshop included a special track on the role of contextualization in human tasks (CHUT). The overall goal of the workshop was to further the understanding, development, and application of AI methods for context-sensitive information technology. The Modeling and Reasoning in Context (MRC) workshop series, begun in 2004, brings together researchers and practitioners to exchange ideas and results on modeling and reasoning issues for context-sensitive systems. MRC 2007 broadened the focus to also highlight studies of contextualization in human tasks (CHUT), to explore the practical relationships between tasks, actors, and workplace context that may shape system design. The workshop was split into formal paper presentations and discussion sessions. The first two discussions combined themed panels with audience participation, while the closing free-form discussion offered the opportunity for participants to examine issues of their choice and provide closing perspective on the workshop as a whole. Following an MRC tradition, the workshop also included an informal dinner, enabling participants to continue their discussions in a traditional Copenhagen restaurant. The MRC paper presentations covered topics such as ontology-based context models, the benefits of multilayered models (combining general metalevel and domain models with applicationspecific instances), the use of situation lattices to achieve situation awareness, user modeling in mobile ambient intelligent systems, and middleware for managing context. These were illustrated for a range of tasks, such as contextualized software reuse and an email filtering approach using multiple heterogeneous sources of contextual data to infer when and where to deliver messages. The contextualization of human tasks was demonstrated from multiple perspectives as well, ranging from analysis of interpersonal work practices, to discover contextual parameters, to an application to improve drivers' situation awareness. These diverse presentations gave a good overview of the various uses of context, their benefits, and their challenges for modeling and reasoning, providing a starting point for the discussions. There was enthusiastic participation in the workshop's discussions, and many participants considered the exchanges there to be the most rewarding part of the workshop.