The first reason is a need to help the computer user solve problems that require specialized knowledge or expertise. In many situations, users need guidance and counseling in order to solve the problem at hand. The solutions to many problems in business, science, and engineering depend on the application of sophisticated numeric algorithms or techniques. In such situations, users often need help in determining which specific algorithm or technique should be employed and in interpreting any computed results. In other situations, the need is more basic--for guidance in determining whether the problem at hand can be solved and, if so, whether the resources that can be brought to bear are sufficient.
The third approach left the technology codes untouched and built a procedural program that initiated separate, independent processes consisting of the technology codes communicating through a common database. This was better because the technology organizations continued to maintain technical and managerial control over their codes. The rigid procedural integration program was still unacceptably costly to modify, requiring a flow time of approximately six weeks. However, it did provide a prototype and baseline for the knowledge system.
Tin Nguyen performed the work contained in the article "Knowledge Base Verification" while at Lockheed and is currently working for Bell Northern Research as a member of the research staff. Deanne Pecora, a staff engineer with the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, 2710 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, is working on Rick Brigs, author of "Knowledge Representation and Inference in Sanskrit: A applying knowledge-based systems to Review of the First National Conference," is a senior engineer at Delfin Systems, real problems. She is a coauthor of 1349 Moffett Park Drive, Sunnyvale, California 94089. Briggs is currently working'Knowledge Base Verification." Walt Perkins, coauthor of "Knowledge Base Verification" is a consulting scientist Lindley Darden, who wrote "Viewing the History of Science as Compiled Hindsight," with the Lockheed Artificial is an associate professor in the departments of philosophy and history and Intelligence Center, 2710 Sand Hill a member of the graduate faculty in the Committee on the History and Philosophy Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 of Science at the University of Maryland, College Park. She is currently and the principal developer of the serving in the second year of a halftime research appointment at the University Lockheed expert system. of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Her mailing address is Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland David Prerau is a principal member of 20742. The primary responsibility is to lead the author of "The 1985 Workshop on Distributed Artificial Intelligence, he is currently development of major expert systems working in the area of distributed artificial intelligence and is organizing with high corporate payoff and impact.
These are known as free-design parameters. When the range is finally obtained, the cycle begins again, based on perturbations of free-design parameters. Each program is "owned" and validated by a We have implemented a knowledge system that integrates the many computational programs (technology codes) Boeing aerospace vehicle designers use, thereby expediting design analysis. Because this system separates facts about attributes of the current set of technology codes from general knowledge about running the codes, those who maintain the system can keep it continuously up to date at low cost. The third approach left the technology codes untouched and built a procedural program that initiated separate, independent processes consisting of the technology codes communicating through a common database.
A novel approach is presented for the development of expert systems for structural design problems. This approach differs from the conventional expert systems in two fundamental respects. First, mathematical optimization is introduced into the design process. Second, a computer is used to obtain parts of the knowledge necessary in the expert systems in addition to heuristics and experiential knowledge obtained from documented materials and human experts. As an example of this approach, a prototype coupled expert system, the bridge truss expert (BTExpert), is presented for optimum design of bridge trusses subjected to moving loads. BTExpert was developed by interfacing an interactive optimization program developed in Fortran 77 to an expert system shell developed in Pascal. This new generation of expert systems-embracing various advanced technologies such as AI (machine intelligence), the numeric optimization technique, and interactive computer graphics -- should find enormous practical implications.