This standardization is not intended to replace free thinking and expression, but to supplement it. Standardisation of these semantics is a difficult and costly exercise, which requires prototyping in order to be successful. Similarity ranking exercises provide a broadly relevant class of prototyping activity, and these are being actively pursued in a number of geologically related fields of scientific endeavour.
Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides many relevant terms are explained in order to provide a basic understanding of ontologies.
Information Access: Building applications to improve access to information in massive text collections, such as the web, newswires and the scientific literature. Subtopics include: information extraction, text mining and semantic annotation, question answering, summarization. Includes platforms for developing and deploying real world language processing applications, most notably GATE, the General Architecture for Text Engineering. Machine Translation: Building applications to translate automatically between human languages, allowing access to the vast amount of information written in foreign languages and easier communication between speakers of different languages. Human-Computer Dialogue Systems: Building systems to allow spoken language interaction with computers or embodied conversational agents, with applications in areas such as keyboard-free access to information, games and entertainment, articifial companions.