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Predictive Entropy Search for Multi-objective Bayesian Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present PESMO, a Bayesian method for identifying the Pareto set of multi-objective optimization problems, when the functions are expensive to evaluate. The central idea of PESMO is to choose evaluation points so as to maximally reduce the entropy of the posterior distribution over the Pareto set. Critically, the PESMO multi-objective acquisition function can be decomposed as a sum of objective-specific acquisition functions, which enables the algorithm to be used in \emph{decoupled} scenarios in which the objectives can be evaluated separately and perhaps with different costs. This decoupling capability also makes it possible to identify difficult objectives that require more evaluations. PESMO also offers gains in efficiency, as its cost scales linearly with the number of objectives, in comparison to the exponential cost of other methods. We compare PESMO with other related methods for multi-objective Bayesian optimization on synthetic and real-world problems. The results show that PESMO produces better recommendations with a smaller number of evaluations of the objectives, and that a decoupled evaluation can lead to improvements in performance, particularly when the number of objectives is large.


Bag of Baselines for Multi-objective Joint Neural Architecture Search and Hyperparameter Optimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural architecture search (NAS) and hyperparameter optimization (HPO) make deep learning accessible to non-experts by automatically finding the architecture of the deep neural network to use and tuning the hyperparameters of the used training pipeline. While both NAS and HPO have been studied extensively in recent years, NAS methods typically assume fixed hyperparameters and vice versa - there exists little work on joint NAS + HPO. Furthermore, NAS has recently often been framed as a multi-objective optimization problem, in order to take, e.g., resource requirements into account. In this paper, we propose a set of methods that extend current approaches to jointly optimize neural architectures and hyperparameters with respect to multiple objectives. We hope that these methods will serve as simple baselines for future research on multi-objective joint NAS + HPO. To facilitate this, all our code is available at https://github.com/automl/multi-obj-baselines.


A survey on multi-objective hyperparameter optimization algorithms for Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hyperparameter optimization (HPO) is a necessary step to ensure the best possible performance of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. Several methods have been developed to perform HPO; most of these are focused on optimizing one performance measure (usually an error-based measure), and the literature on such single-objective HPO problems is vast. Recently, though, algorithms have appeared which focus on optimizing multiple conflicting objectives simultaneously. This article presents a systematic survey of the literature published between 2014 and 2020 on multi-objective HPO algorithms, distinguishing between metaheuristic-based algorithms, metamodel-based algorithms, and approaches using a mixture of both. We also discuss the quality metrics used to compare multi-objective HPO procedures and present future research directions.


Multi-objective Bayesian Optimization using Pareto-frontier Entropy

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose Pareto-frontier entropy search (PFES) for multi-objective Bayesian optimization (MBO). Unlike the existing entropy search for MBO which considers the entropy of the input space, we define the entropy of Pareto-frontier in the output space. By using a sampled Pareto-frontier from the current model, PFES provides a simple formula for directly evaluating the entropy. Besides the usual MBO setting, in which all the objectives are simultaneously observed, we also consider the "decoupled" setting, in which the objective functions can be observed separately. PFES can easily derive an acquisition function for the decoupled setting through the entropy of the marginal density for each output variable. For the both settings, by conditioning on the sampled Pareto-frontier, dependence among different objectives arises in the entropy evaluation. PFES can incorporate this dependency into the acquisition function, while the existing information-based MBO employs an independent Gaussian approximation. Our numerical experiments show effectiveness of PFES through synthetic functions and real-world datasets from materials science.


Multi-Fidelity Multi-Objective Bayesian Optimization: An Output Space Entropy Search Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study the novel problem of blackbox optimization of multiple objectives via multi-fidelity function evaluations that vary in the amount of resources consumed and their accuracy. The overall goal is to approximate the true Pareto set of solutions by minimizing the resources consumed for function evaluations. For example, in power system design optimization, we need to find designs that trade-off cost, size, efficiency, and thermal tolerance using multi-fidelity simulators for design evaluations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach referred as Multi-Fidelity Output Space Entropy Search for Multi-objective Optimization (MF-OSEMO) to solve this problem. The key idea is to select the sequence of candidate input and fidelity-vector pairs that maximize the information gained about the true Pareto front per unit resource cost. Our experiments on several synthetic and real-world benchmark problems show that MF-OSEMO, with both approximations, significantly improves over the state-of-the-art single-fidelity algorithms for multi-objective optimization.