Several advanced applications of autonomous aerial vehicles in civilian and military contexts involve a searching agent with imperfect sensors that seeks to locate a mobile target in a given region. Effectively managing uncertainty is key to solving the related search problem, which is why all methods devised so far hinge on a probabilistic formulation of the problem and solve it through branch-and-bound algorithms, Bayesian filtering or POMDP solvers. In this paper, we consider a class of hard search tasks involving a target that exhibits an intentional evasive behaviour and moves over a large geographical area, i.e., a target that is particularly difficult to track down and uncertain to locate. We show that, even for such a complex problem, it is advantageous to compile its probabilistic structure into a deterministic model and use standard deterministic solvers to find solutions. In particular, we formulate the search problem for our uncooperative target both as a deterministic automated planning task and as a constraint programming task and show that in both cases our solution outperforms POMDPs methods.
Search-And-Tracking (SaT) is the problem of searching for a mobile target and tracking it once it is found. Since SaT platforms face many sources of uncertainty and operational constraints, progress in the field has been restricted to simple and unrealistic scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid approach to SaT that allows us to successfully address large-scale and complex SaT missions. The probabilistic structure of SaT is compiled into a deterministic planning model and Bayesian inference is directly incorporated in the planning mechanism. Thanks to this tight integration between automated planning and probabilistic reasoning, we are able to exploit the power of both approaches. Planning provides the tools to efficiently explore big search spaces, while Bayesian inference, by readily combining prior knowledge with observable data, allows the planner to make more informed and effective decisions. We offer experimental evidence of the potential of our approach.
Search And Tracking (SAT) is the problem of searching for a mobile target and tracking it after it is found. As this problem has important applications in search-and-rescue and surveillance operations, recently there has been increasing interest in equipping unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with autonomous SAT capabilities. State-of-the-art approaches to SAT rely on estimating the probability density function of the target's state and solving the search control problem in a greedy fashion over a short planning horizon (typically, a one-step lookahead). These techniques suffer high computational cost, making them unsuitable for complex problems. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to SAT, which allows us to handle big geographical areas, complex target motion models and long-term operations. Our solution is to track the target reactively while it is in view and to plan a recovery strategy that relocates the target every time it is lost, using a high-performing automated planning tool. The planning problem consists of deciding where to search and which search patterns to use in order to maximise the likelihood of recovering the target. We show experimental results demonstrating the potential of our approach.
Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are increasingly regarded as a valid low-cost alternative to UAVs and ground robots in surveillance missions and a number of other civil and military applications. Research on autonomous MAVs is still in its infancy and has focused almost exclusively on integrating control and computer vision techniques to achieve reliable autonomous flight. In this paper, we describe our approach to using automated planning in order to elicit high-level intelligent behaviour from autonomous MAVs engaged in surveillance applications. Planning offers effective tools to handle the unique challenges faced by MAVs that relate to their fast and unstable dynamics as well as their low endurance and small payload capabilities. We demonstrate our approach by focusing on the "Parrot AR.Drone2.0" quadcopter and Search-and-Tracking missions, which involve searching for a mobile target and tracking it after it is found.
Most applications of planning to real problems involve complex and often non-linear equations, including matrix operations. PDDL is ill-suited to express such calculations since it only allows basic operations between numeric fluents. To remedy this restriction, a generic PDDL planner can be connected to a specialised advisor, which equips the planner with the ability to carry out sophisticated mathematical operations. Unlike related techniques based on semantic attachment, our planner is able to exploit an approximation of the numeric information calculated by the advisor to compute informative heuristic estimators. Guided by both causal and numeric information, our planning framework outperforms traditional approaches, especially against problems with numeric goals. We provide evidence of the power of our solution by successfully solving four completely different problems.