We develop a novel multi-fidelity framework that goes far beyond the classical AR(1) Co-kriging scheme of Kennedy and O'Hagan (2000). Our method can handle general discontinuous cross-correlations among systems with different levels of fidelity. A combination of multi-fidelity Gaussian Processes (AR(1) Co-kriging) and deep neural networks enables us to construct a method that is immune to discontinuities. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new technology using standard benchmark problems designed to resemble the outputs of complicated high- and low-fidelity codes.
Multi-fidelity Gaussian process is a common approach to address the extensive computationally demanding algorithms such as optimization, calibration and uncertainty quantification. Adaptive sampling for multi-fidelity Gaussian process is a changing task due to the fact that not only we seek to estimate the next sampling location of the design variable, but also the level of the simulator fidelity. This issue is often addressed by including the cost of the simulator as an another factor in the searching criterion in conjunction with the uncertainty reduction metric. In this work, we extent the traditional design of experiment framework for the multi-fidelity Gaussian process by partitioning the prediction uncertainty based on the fidelity level and the associated cost of execution. In addition, we utilize the concept of Believer which quantifies the effect of adding an exploratory design point on the Gaussian process uncertainty prediction. We demonstrated our framework using academic examples as well as a industrial application of steady-state thermodynamic operation point of a fluidized bed process
The design process of complex systems such as new configurations of aircraft or launch vehicles is usually decomposed in different phases which are characterized for instance by the depth of the analyses in terms of number of design variables and fidelity of the physical models. At each phase, the designers have to compose with accurate but computationally intensive models as well as cheap but inaccurate models. Multi-fidelity modeling is a way to merge different fidelity models to provide engineers with accurate results with a limited computational cost. Within the context of multi-fidelity modeling, approaches relying on Gaussian Processes emerge as popular techniques to fuse information between the different fidelity models. The relationship between the fidelity models is a key aspect in multi-fidelity modeling. This paper provides an overview of Gaussian process-based multi-fidelity modeling techniques for variable relationship between the fidelity models (e.g., linearity, non-linearity, variable correlation). Each technique is described within a unified framework and the links between the different techniques are highlighted. All the approaches are numerically compared on a series of analytical test cases and four aerospace related engineering problems in order to assess their benefits and disadvantages with respect to the problem characteristics.
In many scientific and engineering applications, we are tasked with the maximisation of an expensive to evaluate black box function f. Traditional settings for this problem assume just the availability of this single function. However, in many cases, cheap approximations to f may be obtainable. For example, the expensive real world behaviour of a robot can be approximated by a cheap computer simulation. We can use these approximations to eliminate low function value regions cheaply and use the expensive evaluations of f in a small but promising region and speedily identify the optimum. We formalise this task as a multi-fidelity bandit problem where the target function and its approximations are sampled from a Gaussian process. We develop MF-GP-UCB, a novel method based on upper confidence bound techniques. In our theoretical analysis we demonstrate that it exhibits precisely the above behaviour and achieves better bounds on the regret than strategies which ignore multi-fidelity information. Empirically, MF-GP-UCB outperforms such naive strategies and other multi-fidelity methods on several synthetic and real experiments.
Gaussian processes are employed for non-parametric regression in a Bayesian setting. They generalize linear regression, embedding the inputs in a latent manifold inside an infinite-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We can augment the inputs with the observations of low-fidelity models in order to learn a more expressive latent manifold and thus increment the model's accuracy. This can be realized recursively with a chain of Gaussian processes with incrementally higher fidelity. We would like to extend these multi-fidelity model realizations to case studies affected by a high-dimensional input space but with low intrinsic dimensionality. In this cases physical supported or purely numerical low-order models are still affected by the curse of dimensionality when queried for responses. When the model's gradient information is provided, the presence of an active subspace can be exploited to design low-fidelity response surfaces and thus enable Gaussian process multi-fidelity regression, without the need to perform new simulations. This is particularly useful in the case of data scarcity. In this work we present a multi-fidelity approach involving active subspaces and we test it on two different high-dimensional benchmarks.