DMEDI Methodology in Six Sigma It refers to the steps such as Define, Measure, Explore, Develop, Implement This Methodology is data and statistic drove and creative approach for designing new processes, products, and services. The roadmap of this method is focused on obtaining significant competitive advantages or breakthrough changes over the current position. Projects of this methodology take more resources and time as compared to the DMAIC projects. This method is based on data gathering to design a new process or product or improve the design of the existing process or product. DMAIC Methodology It refers to the steps such as Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control This is an analytical, data-driven approach used to eliminate wastes or improve existing processes, products, and services to meet customer's expectations.
Phase transitions at the nanoscale are interesting because the usually neglected surface effects can play an outsized role. Chen et al. investigated the temperature-dependent crystal phase transition in copper selenide nanocrystals. They found evidence of two-phase coexistence, which is not allowed for the bulk material. This is likely explained by the surface effects of their wedge-shaped nanocrystal. This demonstration shows how nanomaterials may be tailored in distinct ways compared to their bulk counterparts, offering interesting new routes to optimize their physical properties.
Our textbook understanding of quantum systems tends to come from modeling these systems isolated from the environment. However, an emerging focus is understanding how many-body quantum systems behave when interacting with their surroundings and how they subsequently become dissipative, or non-Hermitian, systems. Öztürk et al. formed a quantum condensate of light by trapping photons in an optical cavity, a system that is naturally dissipative. By altering the trapping conditions, they demonstrated that the system provides a powerful platform with which to explore the complex dynamics and phase transitions occurring in dissipative quantum systems. Science , this issue p.  Quantum gases of light, such as photon or polariton condensates in optical microcavities, are collective quantum systems enabling a tailoring of dissipation from, for example, cavity loss. This characteristic makes them a tool to study dissipative phases, an emerging subject in quantum many-body physics. We experimentally demonstrate a non-Hermitian phase transition of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate to a dissipative phase characterized by a biexponential decay of the condensate’s second-order coherence. The phase transition occurs because of the emergence of an exceptional point in the quantum gas. Although Bose-Einstein condensation is usually connected to lasing by a smooth crossover, the observed phase transition separates the biexponential phase from both lasing and an intermediate, oscillatory condensate regime. Our approach can be used to study a wide class of dissipative quantum phases in topological or lattice systems. : /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abe9869
Molecular chirality is often required to make chiral liquid crystalline phases, but liquid crystallinity has also been obtained using curved elongated rods known as bent-core or banana-shaped molecules. Fernández-Rico et al. developed a method to controllably alter the curvature of the rods using ultraviolet light and a photoresponsive polymer (see the Perspective by Godinho). From a single starting batch can come a family of rods with different curvatures but similar overall rod thickness, length, and length distribution. The researchers explored a range of liquid crystalline phases, including the splay-bend nematic phase that was predicted more than 40 years ago. Science , this issue p. ; see also p.  Understanding the impact of curvature on the self-assembly of elongated microscopic building blocks, such as molecules and proteins, is key to engineering functional materials with predesigned structure. We develop model “banana-shaped” colloidal particles with tunable dimensions and curvature, whose structure and dynamics are accessible at the particle level. By heating initially straight rods made of SU-8 photoresist, we induce a controllable shape deformation that causes the rods to buckle into banana-shaped particles. We elucidate the phase behavior of differently curved colloidal bananas using confocal microscopy. Although highly curved bananas only form isotropic phases, less curved bananas exhibit very rich phase behavior, including biaxial nematic phases, polar and antipolar smectic-like phases, and even the long-predicted, elusive splay-bend nematic phase. : /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abb4536 : /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abd3548