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On Valid Optimal Assignment Kernels and Applications to Graph Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The success of kernel methods has initiated the design of novel positive semidefinite functions, in particular for structured data. A leading design paradigm for this is the convolution kernel, which decomposes structured objects into their parts and sums over all pairs of parts. Assignment kernels, in contrast, are obtained from an optimal bijection between parts, which can provide a more valid notion of similarity. In general however, optimal assignments yield indefinite functions, which complicates their use in kernel methods. We characterize a class of base kernels used to compare parts that guarantees positive semidefinite optimal assignment kernels. These base kernels give rise to hierarchies from which the optimal assignment kernels are computed in linear time by histogram intersection. We apply these results by developing the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graphs. It provides high classification accuracy on widely-used benchmark data sets improving over the original Weisfeiler-Lehman kernel.


On Valid Optimal Assignment Kernels and Applications to Graph Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

The success of kernel methods has initiated the design of novel positive semidefinite functions, in particular for structured data. A leading design paradigm for this is the convolution kernel, which decomposes structured objects into their parts and sums over all pairs of parts. Assignment kernels, in contrast, are obtained from an optimal bijection between parts, which can provide a more valid notion of similarity. In general however, optimal assignments yield indefinite functions, which complicates their use in kernel methods. We characterize a class of base kernels used to compare parts that guarantees positive semidefinite optimal assignment kernels. These base kernels give rise to hierarchies from which the optimal assignment kernels are computed in linear time by histogram intersection. We apply these results by developing the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graphs. It provides high classification accuracy on widely-used benchmark data sets improving over the original Weisfeiler-Lehman kernel.


Deep Weisfeiler-Lehman Assignment Kernels via Multiple Kernel Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Kernels for structured data are commonly obtained by decomposing objects into their parts and adding up the similarities between all pairs of parts measured by a base kernel. Assignment kernels are based on an optimal bijection between the parts and have proven to be an effective alternative to the established convolution kernels. We explore how the base kernel can be learned as part of the classification problem. We build on the theory of valid assignment kernels derived from hierarchies defined on the parts. We show that the weights of this hierarchy can be optimized via multiple kernel learning. We apply this result to learn vertex similarities for the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graph classification. We present first experimental results which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach.


The Multiscale Laplacian Graph Kernel

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many real world graphs, such as the graphs of molecules, exhibit structure at multiple different scales, but most existing kernels between graphs are either purely local or purely global in character. In contrast, by building a hierarchy of nested subgraphs, the Multiscale Laplacian Graph kernels (MLG kernels) that we define in this paper can account for structure at a range of different scales. At the heart of the MLG construction is another new graph kernel, called the Feature Space Laplacian Graph kernel (FLG kernel), which has the property that it can lift a base kernel defined on the vertices of two graphs to a kernel between the graphs. The MLG kernel applies such FLG kernels to subgraphs recursively. To make the MLG kernel computationally feasible, we also introduce a randomized projection procedure, similar to the Nystr\"om method, but for RKHS operators.


The Multiscale Laplacian Graph Kernel

Neural Information Processing Systems

Many real world graphs, such as the graphs of molecules, exhibit structure at multiple different scales, but most existing kernels between graphs are either purely local or purely global in character. In contrast, by building a hierarchy of nested subgraphs, the Multiscale Laplacian Graph kernels (MLG kernels) that we define in this paper can account for structure at a range of different scales. At the heart of the MLG construction is another new graph kernel, called the Feature Space Laplacian Graph kernel (FLG kernel), which has the property that it can lift a base kernel defined on the vertices of two graphs to a kernel between the graphs. The MLG kernel applies such FLG kernels to subgraphs recursively. To make the MLG kernel computationally feasible, we also introduce a randomized projection procedure, similar to the Nystro m method, but for RKHS operators.