The central challenge in commonsense knowledge representation research is to develop content theories that achieve a high degree of both competency and coverage. We describe a new methodology for constructing formal theories in commonsense knowledge domains that complements traditional knowledge representation approaches by first addressing issues of coverage. These concepts are sorted into a manageable number of coherent domains, one of which is the representational area of commonsense human memory. These representational areas are then analyzed using more traditional knowledge representation techniques, as demonstrated in this article by our treatment of commonsense human memory.
This paper presents a semantically grounded method for extracting commonsense knowledge. First, commonsense rules are identified, e.g., one cannot see imaginary objects. Second, those rules are combined with a basic semantic representation in order to infer commonsense knowledge facts, e.g. one cannot see a flying carpet. Further combinations of semantic relations with inferred commonsense facts are proposed and analyzed. Results show that this novel method is able to extract thousands of commonsense facts with little human interaction and high accuracy.
Contextual knowledge is essential in answering questions given speciﬁc observations. While recent approaches to building commonsense knowledge basesvia text mining and/or crowdsourcing are successful,contextual knowledge is largely missing. To addressthis gap, this paper presents SocialExplain, a novel approach to acquiring contextual commonsense knowledge from explanations of social content. The acquisition process is broken into two cognitively simple tasks:to identify contextual clues from the given social content, and to explain the content with the clues. An experiment was conducted to show that multiple piecesof contextual commonsense knowledge can be identi-ﬁed from a small number of tweets. Online users veriﬁed that 92.45% of the acquired sentences are good,and 95.92% are new sentences compared with existingcrowd-sourced commonsense knowledge bases.
The Winograd Schema Challenge has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Turing test. A Winograd Schema consists of a sentence and question pair such that the answer to the question depends on the resolution of a definite pronoun in the sentence. The answer is fairly intuitive for humans but is difficult for machines because it requires commonsense knowledge about words or concepts in the sentence. In this paper we propose a novel technique which semantically parses the text, hunts for the needed commonsense knowledge and uses that knowledge to answer the given question.
In order to be fully robust and responsive to a dynamically changing real-world environment, intelligent robots will need to engage in a variety of simultaneous reasoning modalities. In particular, in this paper we consider their needs to i) reason with commonsense knowledge, ii) model their nondeterministic action outcomes and partial observability, and iii) plan toward maximizing long-term rewards. On one hand, Answer Set Programming (ASP) is good at representing and reasoning with commonsense and default knowledge, but is ill-equipped to plan under probabilistic uncertainty. On the other hand, Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) are strong at planning under uncertainty toward maximizing long-term rewards, but are not designed to incorporate commonsense knowledge and inference. This paper introduces the CORPP algorithm which combines P-log, a probabilistic extension of ASP, with POMDPs to integrate commonsense reasoning with planning under uncertainty. Our approach is fully implemented and tested on a shopping request identification problem both in simulation and on a real robot. Compared with existing approaches using P-log or POMDPs individually, we observe significant improvements in both efficiency and accuracy.