These tools can be used for a great range of activities in the ontology development process, such as ontology design, browsing and implementation, ontology importation, ontology merge and alignment, and ontology-based resource annotation. The middle tier is based on an application server, which makes it easy to create and add new services. A wide range of services for importing and exporting ontologies are available, as we describe in the next section, and some other services rely on them. WAB) to edit formal axioms and rules. Bibliographic references, synonyms, and acronyms can be attached to any of the aforementioned ontology components.
The Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods (PSMs), held in conjunction with the Thirteenth Biennial European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI-98), was held on 24 to 25 August 1998. Twenty-six people participated, and 16 papers were presented. Participants included scientists and practitioners from both the ontology and PSM communities. The first day was devoted to paper presentations and discussions. The second (half) day, a joint session was held with two other workshops: (1) Building, Maintaining, and Using Organizational Memories and (2) Intelligent Information Integration. The reason for the joint session was that in all three workshops, ontologies play a prominent role, and the goal was to bring together researchers working on related issues in different communities. The workshop ended with a discussion about the added value of a combined ontologies-PSM workshop compared to separate workshops.
In this article, we discuss some issues that arise when ontologies are used to support corporate application domains such as electronic commerce (ecommerce) and some technical problems in deploying ontologies for real-world use. In particular, we focus on issues of ontology integration and the related problem of semantic mapping, that is, the mapping of ontologies and taxonomies to reference ontologies to preserve semantics. Along the way, we discuss what typically constitutes an ontology architecture. We situate the discussion in the domain of business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. By its very nature, B2B e-commerce must try to interlink buyers and sellers from multiple companies with disparate product-description terminologies and meanings, thus serving as a paradigmatic case for the use of ontologies to support corporate applications.
A proposed standard for specifying and exchanging ontologies, drawing together ideas from Web languages (e.g., XML, RDF), Description Logics, and frame-based systems. OKBC - The Open Knowledge Base Connectivity Protocol (formerly called GFP, the Generic Frame Protocol). OK Station (in French) - The Ontological Knowledge Station, a commercial modeling tool dedicated to the acquisition, definition and manipulation of knowledge bases and ontologies, based on the OK ontological model (Univ Savoie, France). OMCSNet - A semantic network derived from the OpenMind commonsense database, now superceded by the more recent OpenMind derivative knowledge base ConceptNet. ON9 - The ontology library at the Laboratory for Applied Ontology (Italy), developed using the ONIONS methodology and implemented in Loom.
Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides many relevant terms are explained in order to provide a basic understanding of ontologies.