Guillory, Andrew, Bilmes, Jeff A.

We investigate methods for selecting sets of labeled vertices for use in predicting the labels of vertices on a graph. We specifically study methods which choose a single batch of labeled vertices (i.e. In this setting, we find common graph smoothness assumptions directly motivate simple label selection methods with interesting theoretical guarantees. These methods bound prediction error in terms of the smoothness of the true labels with respect to the graph. Some of these bounds give new motivations for previously proposed algorithms, and some suggest new algorithms which we evaluate.

Cohen, D. A., Cooper, M. C., Creed, P., Marx, D., Salamon, A. Z.

The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) is a general problem central to computer science and artificial intelligence. Although the CSP is NP-hard in general, considerable effort has been spent on identifying tractable subclasses. The main two approaches consider structural properties (restrictions on the hypergraph of constraint scopes) and relational properties (restrictions on the language of constraint relations). Recently, some authors have considered hybrid properties that restrict the constraint hypergraph and the relations simultaneously. Our key contribution is the novel concept of a CSP pattern and classes of problems defined by forbidden patterns (which can be viewed as forbidding generic sub-problems). We describe the theoretical framework which can be used to reason about classes of problems defined by forbidden patterns. We show that this framework generalises certain known hybrid tractable classes. Although we are not close to obtaining a complete characterisation concerning the tractability of general forbidden patterns, we prove a dichotomy in a special case: classes of problems that arise when we can only forbid binary negative patterns (generic sub-problems in which only disallowed tuples are specified). In this case we show that all (finite sets of) forbidden patterns define either polynomial-time solvable or NP-complete classes of instances.

Platanios, Emmanouil Antonios, Smola, Alex

We propose an algorithm for deep learning on networks and graphs. It relies on the notion that many graph algorithms, such as PageRank, Weisfeiler-Lehman, or Message Passing can be expressed as iterative vertex updates. Unlike previous methods which rely on the ingenuity of the designer, Deep Graphs are adaptive to the estimation problem. Training and deployment are both efficient, since the cost is $O(|E| + |V|)$, where $E$ and $V$ are the sets of edges and vertices respectively. In short, we learn the recurrent update functions rather than positing their specific functional form. This yields an algorithm that achieves excellent accuracy on both graph labeling and regression tasks.

Felner, A., Hanan, S., Korf, R. E.

We explore a method for computing admissible heuristic evaluation functions for search problems. It utilizes pattern databases, which are precomputed tables of the exact cost of solving various subproblems of an existing problem. Unlike standard pattern database heuristics, however, we partition our problems into disjoint subproblems, so that the costs of solving the different subproblems can be added together without overestimating the cost of solving the original problem. Previously, we showed how to statically partition the sliding-tile puzzles into disjoint groups of tiles to compute an admissible heuristic, using the same partition for each state and problem instance. Here we extend the method and show that it applies to other domains as well. We also present another method for additive heuristics which we call dynamically partitioned pattern databases. Here we partition the problem into disjoint subproblems for each state of the search dynamically. We discuss the pros and cons of each of these methods and apply both methods to three different problem domains: the sliding-tile puzzles, the 4-peg Towers of Hanoi problem, and finding an optimal vertex cover of a graph. We find that in some problem domains, static partitioning is most effective, while in others dynamic partitioning is a better choice. In each of these problem domains, either statically partitioned or dynamically partitioned pattern database heuristics are the best known heuristics for the problem.

Monnin, Pierre, Bresso, Emmanuel, Couceiro, Miguel, Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika, Napoli, Amedeo, Coulet, Adrien

Features mined from knowledge graphs are widely used within multiple knowledge discovery tasks such as classification or fact-checking. Here, we consider a given set of vertices, called seed vertices, and focus on mining their associated neighboring vertices, paths, and, more generally, path patterns that involve classes of ontologies linked with knowledge graphs. Due to the combinatorial nature and the increasing size of real-world knowledge graphs, the task of mining these patterns immediately entails scalability issues. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing a pattern mining approach that relies on a set of constraints (e.g., support or degree thresholds) and the monotonicity property. As our motivation comes from the mining of real-world knowledge graphs, we illustrate our approach with PGxLOD, a biomedical knowledge graph.