Beijing raps Taiwan's Tsai over call to 'constrain' China

The Japan Times

BEIJING – China lashed out Wednesday at Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen after she urged the international community in an interview to "constrain" China before it does irreparable damage to global democracy. Her comments are "misleading and totally baseless," the spokesman for Beijing's Taiwan Affairs Office told a regular news conference. Tsai's "objective is to create enmity between compatriots across the straits," said Ma Xiaoguang, referring to Chinese separated by the Taiwan Strait. She is "plotting to contain the great rejuvenation of the Chinese race," he said, adding that she "overestimates her own influence." A transcript of Ma's remarks was published by the official Xinhua news agency.


Defining the topography of a planetary body

Science

Rivers develop on planetary bodies from the interplay of climate and topography. In planetary contexts, rivers and their effects are used to constrain short- and long-term climate models. However, rivers are also controlled by the short- and long-wavelength topography of the planetary surface. Rivers thus provide a means to constrain the generation of topography. On page 727 of this issue, Black et al. (1) compare topography at a range of scales with mapped river drainages to provide new insights into the topography-generating mechanisms on Earth, Mars, and Titan.


[Report] Prostaglandin E2 constrains systemic inflammation through an innate lymphoid cell–IL-22 axis

Science

Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promoting their homeostasis and driving them to produce interleukin-22 (IL-22). Hence, the ILC–IL-22 axis is essential in protecting against gut barrier dysfunction, enabling PGE2-EP4 signaling to impede systemic inflammation.


Taiwan President Tsai Ying-wen urges world to 'constrain' China

The Japan Times

TAIPEI – Taiwan's President Tsai Ing-wen called on the international community to "constrain" China by standing up for freedoms, casting her island's giant neighbor as a global threat to democracy. Her comments in an exclusive interview on Monday come as Taiwan faces what Tsai called "immense pressure" from Beijing. She urged other nations to unite with Taiwan in defending against China's expansionist aims and to protect shared liberal values. "This is not just Taiwan's challenge, it is a challenge for the region and the world as a whole, because today it's Taiwan, but tomorrow it may be any other country that will have to face the expansion of China's influence," Tsai said. "Their democracy, freedom, and freedom to do business will one day be affected by China," Tsai added.


Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population

Science

A quarter of known asteroids is associated with more than 100 distinct asteroid families, meaning that these asteroids originate as impact fragments from the family parent bodies. The determination of which asteroids of the remaining population are members of undiscovered families, or accreted as planetesimals from the protoplanetary disk, would constrain a critical phase of planetary formation by unveiling the unknown planetesimal size distribution. We discovered a 4-billion-year-old asteroid family extending across the entire inner part of the main belt whose members include most of the dark asteroids previously unlinked to families. This allows us to identify some original planetesimals, which are all larger than 35 kilometers, supporting the view of asteroids being born big. Their number matches the known distinct meteorite parent bodies.