Children are facile at both discovering word boundaries and using those words to build higher-level structures in tandem. Current research treats lexical acquisition and grammar induction as two distinct tasks. Doing so has led to unreasonable assumptions. Existing work in grammar induction presupposes a perfectly segmented, noise-free lexicon, while lexical learning approaches largely ignore how the lexicon is used. This paper combines both tasks in a novel framework for bootstrapping lexical acquisition and grammar induction.
Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning algorithms have successfully been applied to temporal credit assignment problems with sparse reward signals. However, state-of- the-art algorithms require manual specification of sub-task structures, a sample inefficient exploration phase and lack semantic interpretability. Human infants, on the other hand, efficiently detect hierarchical substructures induced by their surroundings. In this work we propose a cognitive-inspired Reinforcement Learning architecture which uses grammar induction to identify sub-goal policies. More specifically, by treating an on-policy trajectory as a sentence sampled from the policy-conditioned language of the environment, we identify hierarchical constituents with the help of unsupervised grammatical inference. The resulting set of temporal abstractions is called action grammars (Pastra & Aloimonos, 2012) and can be used to enable efficient imitation, transfer and online learning.
Time series anomaly detection is an important task, with applications in a broad variety of domains. Many approaches have been proposed in recent years, but often they require that the length of the anomalies be known in advance and provided as an input parameter. This limits the practicality of the algorithms, as such information is often unknown in advance, or anomalies with different lengths might co-exist in the data. To address this limitation, previously, a linear time anomaly detection algorithm based on grammar induction has been proposed. While the algorithm can find variable-length patterns, it still requires preselecting values for at least two parameters at the discretization step. How to choose these parameter values properly is still an open problem. In this paper, we introduce a grammar-induction-based anomaly detection method utilizing ensemble learning. Instead of using a particular choice of parameter values for anomaly detection, the method generates the final result based on a set of results obtained using different parameter values. We demonstrate that the proposed ensemble approach can outperform existing grammar-induction-based approaches with different criteria for selection of parameter values. We also show that the proposed approach can achieve performance similar to that of the state-of-the-art distance-based anomaly detection algorithm.
SEQUITUR is an algorithm that infers a hierarchical structure from a sequence of discrete symbols by replacing repeated phrases with a grammatical rule that generates the phrase, and continuing this process recursively. The result is a hierarchical representation of the original sequence, which offers insights into its lexical structure. The algorithm is driven by two constraints that reduce the size of the grammar, and produce structure as a by-product.
From a young age humans learn to use grammatical principles to hierarchically combine words into sentences. Action grammars is the parallel idea, that there is an underlying set of rules (a "grammar") that govern how we hierarchically combine actions to form new, more complex actions. We introduce the Action Grammar Reinforcement Learning (AG-RL) framework which leverages the concept of action grammars to consistently improve the sample efficiency of Reinforcement Learning agents. AG-RL works by using a grammar inference algorithm to infer the "action grammar" of an agent midway through training. The agent's action space is then augmented with macro-actions identified by the grammar. We apply this framework to Double Deep Q-Learning (AG-DDQN) and a discrete action version of Soft Actor-Critic (AG-SAC) and find that it improves performance in 8 out of 8 tested Atari games (median +31%, max +668%) and 19 out of 20 tested Atari games (median +96%, maximum +3,756%) respectively without substantive hyperparameter tuning. We also show that AG-SAC beats the model-free state-of-the-art for sample efficiency in 17 out of the 20 tested Atari games (median +62%, maximum +13,140%), again without substantive hyperparameter tuning.