Learning in the Lexical-Grammatical Interface

AAAI Conferences

Children are facile at both discovering word boundaries and using those words to build higher-level structures in tandem. Current research treats lexical acquisition and grammar induction as two distinct tasks. Doing so has led to unreasonable assumptions. Existing work in grammar induction presupposes a perfectly segmented, noise-free lexicon, while lexical learning approaches largely ignore how the lexicon is used. This paper combines both tasks in a novel framework for bootstrapping lexical acquisition and grammar induction.


Action Grammars: A Cognitive Model for Learning Temporal Abstractions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning algorithms have successfully been applied to temporal credit assignment problems with sparse reward signals. However, state-of- the-art algorithms require manual specification of sub-task structures, a sample inefficient exploration phase and lack semantic interpretability. Human infants, on the other hand, efficiently detect hierarchical substructures induced by their surroundings. In this work we propose a cognitive-inspired Reinforcement Learning architecture which uses grammar induction to identify sub-goal policies. More specifically, by treating an on-policy trajectory as a sentence sampled from the policy-conditioned language of the environment, we identify hierarchical constituents with the help of unsupervised grammatical inference. The resulting set of temporal abstractions is called action grammars (Pastra & Aloimonos, 2012) and can be used to enable efficient imitation, transfer and online learning.


Ensemble Grammar Induction For Detecting Anomalies in Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Time series anomaly detection is an important task, with applications in a broad variety of domains. Many approaches have been proposed in recent years, but often they require that the length of the anomalies be known in advance and provided as an input parameter. This limits the practicality of the algorithms, as such information is often unknown in advance, or anomalies with different lengths might co-exist in the data. To address this limitation, previously, a linear time anomaly detection algorithm based on grammar induction has been proposed. While the algorithm can find variable-length patterns, it still requires preselecting values for at least two parameters at the discretization step. How to choose these parameter values properly is still an open problem. In this paper, we introduce a grammar-induction-based anomaly detection method utilizing ensemble learning. Instead of using a particular choice of parameter values for anomaly detection, the method generates the final result based on a set of results obtained using different parameter values. We demonstrate that the proposed ensemble approach can outperform existing grammar-induction-based approaches with different criteria for selection of parameter values. We also show that the proposed approach can achieve performance similar to that of the state-of-the-art distance-based anomaly detection algorithm.


Identifying Hierarchical Structure in Sequences: A linear-time algorithm

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

SEQUITUR is an algorithm that infers a hierarchical structure from a sequence of discrete symbols by replacing repeated phrases with a grammatical rule that generates the phrase, and continuing this process recursively. The result is a hierarchical representation of the original sequence, which offers insights into its lexical structure. The algorithm is driven by two constraints that reduce the size of the grammar, and produce structure as a by-product.


Lexical and Grammatical Inference

AAAI Conferences

Children are facile at both discovering word boundaries and using those words to build higher-level structures in tandem. Current research treats lexical acquisition and grammar induction as two distinct tasks; doing so has led to unreasonable assumptions. State-ofthe-art unsupervised results presuppose a perfectly segmented, noise-free lexicon, while largely ignoring how the lexicon is used. This paper combines both tasks in a novel framework for bootstrapping lexical acquisition and grammar induction.