### On Minimum Representations of Matched Formulas

A Boolean formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) is called matched if the system of sets of variables which appear in individual clauses has a system of distinct representatives. Each matched CNF is trivially satisfiable (each clause can be satisfied by its representative variable). Another property which is easy to see, is that the class of matched CNFs is not closed under partial assignment of truth values to variables. This latter property leads to a fact (proved here) that given two matched CNFs it is co-NP complete to decide whether they are logically equivalent. The construction in this proof leads to another result: a much shorter and simpler proof of the fact that the Boolean minimization problem for matched CNFs is a complete problem for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. The main result of this paper deals with the structure of clause minimum CNFs. We prove here that if a Boolean function f admits a representation by a matched CNF then every clause minimum CNF representation of f is matched.

### The Good Old Davis-Putnam Procedure Helps Counting Models

As was shown recently, many important AI problems require counting the number of models of propositional formulas. The problem of counting models of such formulas is, according to present knowledge, computationally intractable in a worst case. Based on the Davis-Putnam procedure, we present an algorithm, CDP, that computes the exact number of models of a propositional CNF or DNF formula F. Let m and n be the number of clauses and variables of F, respectively, and let p denote the probability that a literal l of F occurs in a clause C of F, then the average running time of CDP is shown to be O(nm^d), where d=-1/log(1-p). The practical performance of CDP has been estimated in a series of experiments on a wide variety of CNF formulas.

### Fault Tolerant Boolean Satisfiability

A δ-model is a satisfying assignment of a Boolean formula for which any small alteration, such as a single bit flip, can be repaired by flips to some small number of other bits, yielding a new satisfying assignment. These satisfying assignments represent robust solutions to optimization problems (e.g., scheduling) where it is possible to recover from unforeseen events (e.g., a resource becoming unavailable). The concept of δ-models was introduced by Ginsberg, Parkes, and Roy (1998), where it was proved that finding δ-models for general Boolean formulas is NPcomplete. In this paper, we extend that result by studying the complexity of finding δ-models for classes of Boolean formulas which are known to have polynomial time satisfiability solvers. In particular, we examine 2-SAT, Horn-SAT, Affine-SAT, dual-Horn-SAT, 0-valid and 1-valid SAT. We see a wide variation in the complexity of finding δ-models, e.g., while 2-SAT and Affine-SAT have polynomial time tests for δ-models, testing whether a Horn-SAT formula has one is NPcomplete.

### Fault Tolerant Boolean Satisfiability

A delta-model is a satisfying assignment of a Boolean formula for which any small alteration, such as a single bit flip, can be repaired by flips to some small number of other bits, yielding a new satisfying assignment. These satisfying assignments represent robust solutions to optimization problems (e.g., scheduling) where it is possible to recover from unforeseen events (e.g., a resource becoming unavailable). The concept of delta-models was introduced by Ginsberg, Parkes and Roy (AAAI 1998) , where it was proved that finding delta-models for general Boolean formulas is NP-complete. In this paper, we extend that result by studying the complexity of finding delta-models for classes of Boolean formulas which are known to have polynomial time satisfiability solvers. In particular, we examine 2-SAT, Horn-SAT, Affine-SAT, dual-Horn-SAT, 0-valid and 1-valid SAT. We see a wide variation in the complexity of finding delta-models, e.g., while 2-SAT and Affine-SAT have polynomial time tests for delta-models, testing whether a Horn-SAT formula has one is NP-complete.

### Backdoor Decomposable Monotone Circuits and their Propagation Complete Encodings

We describe a compilation language of backdoor decomposable monotone circuits (BDMCs) which generalizes several concepts appearing in the literature, e.g. DNNFs and backdoor trees. A BDMC sentence is a monotone circuit which satisfies decomposability property (such as in DNNF) in which the inputs (or leaves) are associated with CNF encodings of some functions. We consider two versions of BDMCs. In case of PC-BDMCs the encodings in the leaves are propagation complete encodings and in case of URC-BDMCs the encodings in the leaves are unit refutation complete encodings of respective functions. We show that a representation of a boolean function with a PC-BDMC can be transformed into a propagation complete encoding of the same function whose size is polynomial in the size of the input PC-BDMC sentence. We obtain a similar result in case of URC-BDMCs. We also relate the size of PC-BDMCs to the size of DNNFs and backdoor trees.