A full book, available for free in PDF form.From the preface:A major problem in artificial intelligence is to endow computers with commonsense knowledge of the world and with the ability to use that knowledge sensibly. A large body of research has studied this problem through careful analysis of typical examples of reasoning in a variety of commonsense domains. The immediate aim of this research is to develop a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge, and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense reasoning. This book provides an introduction and a survey of this body of research. It is, to the best of my knowledge, the first book to attempt this.The book is designed to be used as a textbook for a one-semester graduate course on knowledge representation.Morgan Kaufmann
Endowing computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of Artificial Intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using representations based on formal logic or other formal representations. The challenges to creating such a formalization include the accumulation of large amounts of knowledge about our everyday world, the representation of this knowledge in suitable formal languages, the integration of different representations in a coherent way, and the development of reasoning methods that use these representations.
An intelligent system must be capable of performing automated reasoning as well as responding to the changing environment (for example, changing knowledge). To exhibit such an intelligent behavior, a machine needs to understand its environment as well be able to interact with it to achieve certain goals. For acting rationally, a machine must be able to obtain information and understand it. Knowledge Representation (KR) is an important step of automated reasoning, where the knowledge about the world is represented in a way such that a machine can understand and process. Also, it must be able to accommodate the changes about the world (i.e., the new or updated knowledge).
Commonsense reasoning is in principle a central problem in artificial intelligence, but it is a very difficult one. One approach that has been pursued since the earliest days of the field has been to encode commonsense knowledge as statements in a logic-based representation language and to implement commonsense reasoning as some form of logical inference. This paper surveys the use of logic-based representations of commonsense knowledge in artificial intelligence research.
The central challenge in commonsense knowledge representation research is to develop content theories that achieve a high degree of both competency and coverage. We describe a new methodology for constructing formal theories in commonsense knowledge domains that complements traditional knowledge representation approaches by first addressing issues of coverage. These concepts are sorted into a manageable number of coherent domains, one of which is the representational area of commonsense human memory. These representational areas are then analyzed using more traditional knowledge representation techniques, as demonstrated in this article by our treatment of commonsense human memory.