A full book, available for free in PDF form.From the preface:A major problem in artificial intelligence is to endow computers with commonsense knowledge of the world and with the ability to use that knowledge sensibly. A large body of research has studied this problem through careful analysis of typical examples of reasoning in a variety of commonsense domains. The immediate aim of this research is to develop a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge, and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense reasoning. This book provides an introduction and a survey of this body of research. It is, to the best of my knowledge, the first book to attempt this.The book is designed to be used as a textbook for a one-semester graduate course on knowledge representation.Morgan Kaufmann
Endowing computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of Artificial Intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using representations based on formal logic or other formal representations. The challenges to creating such a formalization include the accumulation of large amounts of knowledge about our everyday world, the representation of this knowledge in suitable formal languages, the integration of different representations in a coherent way, and the development of reasoning methods that use these representations.
The Winograd Schema Challenge has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Turing test. A Winograd Schema consists of a sentence and question pair such that the answer to the question depends on the resolution of a definite pronoun in the sentence. The answer is fairly intuitive for humans but is difficult for machines because it requires commonsense knowledge about words or concepts in the sentence. In this paper we propose a novel technique which semantically parses the text, hunts for the needed commonsense knowledge and uses that knowledge to answer the given question.
The "Naive Physics Manifesto" of Pat Hayes (1978) proposes a large-scale project to develop a formal theory encompassing the entire knowledge of physics of naive reasoners, expressed in a declarative symbolic form. The theory is organized in clusters of closely interconnected concepts and axioms. More recent work on the representation of commonsense physical knowledge has followed a somewhat different methodology. The goal has been to develop a competence theory powerful enough to justify commonsense physical inferences, and the research is organized in microworlds, each microworld covering a small range of physical phenomena. In this article, I compare the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches.
Aditya, Somak (Arizona State University) | Yang, Yezhou (University of Maryland, College Park) | Baral, Chitta (Arizona State University) | Fermuller, Cornelia (Associate Research Scientist, University of Maryland, College Park) | Aloimonos, Yiannis (University of Maryland, College Park)
In this paper we explore the use of visual common-sense knowledge and other kinds of knowledge (such as domain knowledge, background knowledge, linguistic knowledge) for scene understanding. In particular, we combine visual processing with techniques from natural language understanding (especially semantic parsing), common-sense reasoning and knowledge representation and reasoning to improve visual perception to reason about finer aspects of activities.