Panella, Alessandro (University of Illinois at Chicago) | Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr (University of Illinois at Chicago)

We consider an autonomous agent facing a partially observable, stochastic, multiagent environment where the unknown policies of other agents are represented as finite state controllers (FSCs). We show how an agent can (i) learn the FSCs of the other agents, and (ii) exploit these models during interactions. To separate the issues of off-line versus on-line learning we consider here an off-line two-phase approach. During the first phase the agent observes as the other player(s) are interacting with the environment (the observations may be imperfect and the learning agent is not taking part in the interaction.) The collected data is used to learn an ensemble of FSCs that explain the behavior of the other agent(s) using a Bayesian non-parametric (BNP) approach. We verify the quality of the learned models during the second phase by allowing the agent to compute its own optimal policy and interact with the observed agent. The optimal policy for the learning agent is obtained by solving an interactive POMDP in which the states are augmented by the other agent(s)' possible FSCs. The advantage of using the Bayesian nonparametric approach in the first phase is that the complexity (number of nodes) of the learned controllers is not bounded a priori. Our two-phase approach is preliminary and separates the learning using BNP from the complexities of learning on-line while the other agent may be modifying its policy (on-line approach is subject of our future work.) We describe our implementation and results in a multiagent Tiger domain. Our results show that learning improves the agent's performance, which increases with the amount of data collected during the learning phase.

Panella, Alessandro (University of Illinois at Chicago) | Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr (University of Illinois at Chicago)

We consider an autonomous agent operating in a stochastic, partially-observable, multiagent environment, that explicitly models the other agents as probabilistic deterministic finite-state controllers (PDFCs) in order to predict their actions. We assume that such models are not given to the agent, but instead must be learned from (possibly imperfect) observations of the other agents' behavior. The agent maintains a belief over the other agents' models, that is updated via Bayesian inference. To represent this belief we place a flexible stick-breaking distribution over PDFCs, that allows the posterior to concentrate around controllers whose size is not bounded and scales with the complexity of the observed data. Since this Bayesian inference task is not analytically tractable, we devise a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to approximate the posterior distribution. The agent then embeds the result of this inference into its own decision making process using the interactive POMDP framework. We show that our learning algorithm can learn agent models that are behaviorally accurate for problems of varying complexity, and that the agent's performance increases as a result.

Han, Yanlin (University of Illinois at Chicago) | Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Interactive partially observable Markov decision processes (I-POMDPs) provide a principled framework for planning and acting in a partially observable, stochastic and multi-agent environment, extending POMDPs to multi-agent settings by including models of other agents in the state space and forming a hierarchical belief structure. In order to predict other agents' actions using I-POMDP, we propose an approach that effectively uses Bayesian inference and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampling to learn others' intentional models which ascribe to them beliefs, preferences and rationality in action selection. Empirical results show that our algorithm accurately learns models of other agents and has superior performance when compared to other methods. Our approach serves as a generalized reinforcement learning algorithm that learns other agents' beliefs, and transition, observation and reward functions. It also effectively mitigates the belief space complexity due to the nested belief hierarchy.

It involves choosing optimally between different lines of action in various information contexts that range from perfectly knowing all aspects of the decision problem to having just partial knowledge about it. The physical context often includes other interacting autonomous systems, typically called agents. In this article, I focus on decision making in a multiagent context with partial information about the problem. Relevant research in this complex but realistic setting has converged around two complementary, general frameworks and also introduced myriad specializations on its way. I put the two frameworks, decentralized partially observable Markov decision process (Dec-POMDP) and the interactive partially observable Markov decision process (I-POMDP), in context and review the foundational algorithms for these frameworks, while briefly discussing the advances in their specializations.

Doshi, Prashant J. (University of Georgia)

Decision making is a key feature of autonomous systems. It involves choosing optimally between different lines of action in various information contexts that range from perfectly knowing all aspects of the decision problem to having just partial knowledge about it. The physical context often includes other interacting autonomous systems, typically called agents. In this article, I focus on decision making in a multiagent context with partial information about the problem. Relevant research in this complex but realistic setting has converged around two complementary, general frameworks and also introduced myriad specializations on its way. I put the two frameworks, decentralized partially observable Markov decision process (Dec-POMDP) and the interactive partially observable Markov decision process (I-POMDP), in context and review the foundational algorithms for these frameworks, while briefly discussing the advances in their specializations. I conclude by examining the avenues that research pertaining to these frameworks is pursuing.