Min, Wookhee (North Carolina State University) | Baikadi, Alok (University of Pittsburgh) | Mott, Bradford (North Carolina State University) | Rowe, Jonathan (North Carolina State University) | Liu, Barry (North Carolina State University) | Ha, Eun Young (IBM) | Lester, James (North Carolina State University)
Recent years have seen a growing interest in player modeling, which supports the creation of player-adaptive digital games. A central problem of player modeling is goal recognition, which aims to recognize players’ intentions from observable gameplay behaviors. Player goal recognition offers the promise of enabling games to dynamically adjust challenge levels, perform procedural content generation, and create believable NPC interactions. A growing body of work is investigating a wide range of machine learning-based goal recognition models. In this paper, we introduce GOALIE, a multidimensional framework for evaluating player goal recognition models. The framework integrates multiple metrics for player goal recognition models, including two novel metrics, n-early convergence rate and standardized convergence point . We demonstrate the application of the GOALIE framework with the evaluation of several player goal recognition models, including Markov logic network-based, deep feedforward neural network-based, and long short-term memory network-based goal recognizers on two different educational games. The results suggest that GOALIE effectively captures goal recognition behaviors that are key to next-generation player modeling.
Video game virtual characters should interact with the player, each other, and the environment. However, the cost of scripting complex behaviors becomes a bottleneck in content creation. Our goal is to help game designers to more easily populate their open world with background characters that exhibit more believable behaviors. We use a cyclic scheduling model that generates dynamic schedules for the daily lives of virtual characters. The scheduler employs a tiered behavior architecture where behavior components are modular and reusable. This research validates the designer usability of an implementation of this model. We present the results of a user study that evaluates the scheduling system versus manual scripting based on three metrics of behavior creation: behavior completeness, behavior correctness and behavior implementation time. The results indicate that the behavior architecture produces more reliable behaviors and improves designer efficiency which will reduce the cost of generating more believable character behaviors.
Plan recognition techniques frequently make rigid assumptions about the student's plans, and invest substantial effort to infer unobservable properties of the student. The pedagogical benefits of plan recognition analysis are not always obvious. We claim that these difficulties can be overcome if greater attention is paid to the situational context of the student's activity and the pedagogical tasks which plan recognition is intended to support. This paper describes an approach to plan recognition called situated plan attribution that takes these factors into account. It devotes varying amounts of effort to the interpretation process, focusing the greatest effort on interpreting impasse points, i.e., points where the student encounters some difficulty completing the task. This approach has been implemented and evaluated in the context of the REACT tutor, a trainer for Operators of deep space communications stations.
This article presents new algorithms for inferring users’ activities in a class of flexible and open-ended educational software called exploratory learning environments (ELE). Such settings provide a rich educational environment for students, but challenge teachers to keep track of students’ progress and to assess their performance. This article presents techniques for recognizing students activities in ELEs and visualizing these activities to students. It describes a new plan recognition algorithm that takes into account repetition and interleaving of activities. This algorithm was evaluated empirically using two ELEs for teaching chemistry and statistics used by thousands of students in several countries. It was able to outperform the state-of-the-art plan recognition algorithms when compared to a gold-standard that was obtained by a domain-expert. We also show that visualizing students’ plans improves their performance on new problems when compared to an alternative visualization that consists of a step-by-step list of actions.
Narrative, and in particular storytelling, is an important part of the human experience. Consequently, computational systems that can reason about narrative can be more effective communicators, entertainers, educators, and trainers. One of the central challenges in computational narrative reasoning is narrative generation, the automated creation of meaningful event sequences. There are many factors - logical and aesthetic - that contribute to the success of a narrative artifact. Central to this success is its understandability.