Supervised classification for object identification in urban areas using satellite imagery Machine Learning

This paper presents a useful method to achieve classification in satellite imagery. The approach is based on pixel level study employing various features such as correlation, homogeneity, energy and contrast. In this study gray-scale images are used for training the classification model. For supervised classification, two classification techniques are employed namely the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Naive Bayes. With textural features used for gray-scale images, Naive Bayes performs better with an overall accuracy of 76% compared to 68% achieved by SVM. The computational time is evaluated while performing the experiment with two different window sizes i.e., 50x50 and 70x70. The required computational time on a single image is found to be 27 seconds for a window size of 70x70 and 45 seconds for a window size of 50x50.

Decision Support System for Renal Transplantation Machine Learning

The burgeoning need for kidney transplantation mandates immediate attention. Mismatch of deceased donor-recipient kidney leads to post-transplant death. To ensure ideal kidney donor-recipient match and minimize post-transplant deaths, the paper develops a prediction model that identifies factors that determine the probability of success of renal transplantation, that is, if the kidney procured from the deceased donor can be transplanted or discarded. The paper conducts a study enveloping data for 584 imported kidneys collected from 12 transplant centers associated with an organ procurement organization located in New York City, NY. The predicting model yielding best performance measures can be beneficial to the healthcare industry. Transplant centers and organ procurement organizations can take advantage of the prediction model to efficiently predict the outcome of kidney transplantation. Consequently, it will reduce the mortality rate caused by mismatching of donor-recipient kidney transplantation during the surgery.

Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: ICF-CY Self Care (SCADI Dataset) Using Predictive Analytics Machine Learning

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) is a scaffold for designating and systematizing data on functioning and disability. It offers a standard semantic and a theoretical foundation for the demarcation and extent of wellbeing and infirmity. The multidimensional layout of ICF-CY comprehends a plethora of information with about 1400 categories making it difficult to analyze. Our research proposes a predictive model that classify self-care problems on Self-Care Activities Dataset based on the ICF- CY. The data used in this study resides 206 attributes of 70 children with motor and physical disability. Our study implements, compare and analyze Random Forest, Support vector machine, Naive Bayes, Hoeffding tree, and Lazy locally weighted learning using two-tailed T-test at 95% confidence interval. Boruta algorithm involved in the study minimizes the data dimensionality to advocate the minimal-optimal set of predictors. Random forest gave the best classification accuracy of 84.75%; root mean squared error of 0.18 and receiver operating characteristic of 0.99. Predictive analytics can simplify the usage of ICF-CY by automating the classification process of disability, functioning, and health.

Target Fishing: A Single-Label or Multi-Label Problem? Machine Learning

According to Cobanoglu et al and Murphy, it is now widely acknowledged that the single target paradigm (one protein or target, one disease, one drug) that has been the dominant premise in drug development in the recent past is untenable. More often than not, a drug-like compound (ligand) can be promiscuous - that is, it can interact with more than one target protein. In recent years, in in silico target prediction methods the promiscuity issue has been approached computationally in different ways. In this study we confine attention to the so-called ligand-based target prediction machine learning approaches, commonly referred to as target-fishing. With a few exceptions, the target-fishing approaches that are currently ubiquitous in cheminformatics literature can be essentially viewed as single-label multi-classification schemes; these approaches inherently bank on the single target paradigm assumption that a ligand can home in on one specific target. In order to address the ligand promiscuity issue, one might be able to cast target-fishing as a multi-label multi-class classification problem. For illustrative and comparison purposes, single-label and multi-label Naive Bayes classification models (denoted here by SMM and MMM, respectively) for target-fishing were implemented. The models were constructed and tested on 65,587 compounds and 308 targets retrieved from the ChEMBL17 database. SMM and MMM performed differently: for 16,344 test compounds, the MMM model returned recall and precision values of 0.8058 and 0.6622, respectively; the corresponding recall and precision values yielded by the SMM model were 0.7805 and 0.7596, respectively. However, at a significance level of 0.05 and one degree of freedom McNemar test performed on the target prediction results returned by SMM and MMM for the 16,344 test ligands gave a chi-squared value of 15.656, in favour of the MMM approach.