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Selecting causal brain features with a single conditional independence test per feature

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a constraint-based causal feature selection method for identifying causes of a given target variable, selecting from a set of candidate variables, while there can also be hidden variables acting as common causes with the target. We prove that if we observe a cause for each candidate cause, then a single conditional independence test with one conditioning variable is sufficient to decide whether a candidate associated with the target is indeed causing it. We thus improve upon existing methods by significantly simplifying statistical testing and requiring a weaker version of causal faithfulness. Our main assumption is inspired by neuroscience paradigms where the activity of a single neuron is considered to be also caused by its own previous state. We demonstrate successful application of our method to simulated, as well as encephalographic data of twenty-one participants, recorded in Max Planck Institute for intelligent Systems.


Exploring Functional Connectivities of the Human Brain using Multivariate Information Analysis

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this study, we present a method for estimating the mutual information for a localized pattern of fMRI data. We show that taking a multivariate information approach to voxel selection leads to a decoding accuracy that surpasses an univariate inforamtion approach and other standard voxel selection methods. Furthermore,we extend the multivariate mutual information theory to measure the functional connectivity between distributed brain regions. By jointly estimating the information shared by two sets of voxels we can reliably map out the connectivities in the human brain during experiment conditions. The multivariate information analysis is able to find strong information flow between PPA and RSC, which confirms existing neuroscience studies on scenes.


Evaluation of Classical Features and Classifiers in Brain-Computer Interface Tasks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) uses brain signals in order to provide a new method for communication between human and outside world. Feature extraction, selection and classification are among the main matters of concerns in signal processing stage of BCI. In this article, we present our findings about the most effective features and classifiers in some brain tasks. Six different groups of classical features and twelve classifiers have been examined in nine datasets of brain signal. The results indicate that energy of brain signals in {\alpha} and \b{eta} frequency bands, together with some statistical parameters are more effective, comparing to the other types of extracted features. In addition, Bayesian classifier with Gaussian distribution assumption and also Support Vector Machine (SVM) show to classify different BCI datasets more accurately than the other classifiers. We believe that the results can give an insight about a strategy for blind classification of brain signals in brain-computer interface.


Bandit Algorithms boost Brain Computer Interfaces for motor-task selection of a brain-controlled button

Neural Information Processing Systems

A brain-computer interface (BCI) allows users to "communicate" with a computer without using their muscles. BCI based on sensori-motor rhythms use imaginary motor tasks, such as moving the right or left hand to send control signals. The performances of a BCI can vary greatly across users but also depend on the tasks used, making the problem of appropriate task selection an important issue. This study presents a new procedure to automatically select as fast as possible a discriminant motor task for a brain-controlled button. We develop for this purpose an adaptive algorithm UCB-classif based on the stochastic bandit theory.


Parallel Feature Selection Inspired by Group Testing

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper presents a parallel feature selection method for classification that scales up to very high dimensions and large data sizes. Our original method is inspired by group testing theory, under which the feature selection procedure consists of a collection of randomized tests to be performed in parallel. Each test corresponds to a subset of features, for which a scoring function may be applied to measure the relevance of the features in a classification task. We develop a general theory providing sufficient conditions under which true features are guaranteed to be correctly identified. Superior performance of our method is demonstrated on a challenging relation extraction task from a very large data set that have both redundant features and sample size in the order of millions.