Scalable Inference for Nested Chinese Restaurant Process Topic Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Nested Chinese Restaurant Process (nCRP) topic models are powerful nonparametric Bayesian methods to extract a topic hierarchy from a given text corpus, where the hierarchical structure is automatically determined by the data. Hierarchical Latent Dirichlet Allocation (hLDA) is a popular instance of nCRP topic models. However, hLDA has only been evaluated at small scale, because the existing collapsed Gibbs sampling and instantiated weight variational inference algorithms either are not scalable or sacrifice inference quality with mean-field assumptions. Moreover, an efficient distributed implementation of the data structures, such as dynamically growing count matrices and trees, is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel partially collapsed Gibbs sampling (PCGS) algorithm, which combines the advantages of collapsed and instantiated weight algorithms to achieve good scalability as well as high model quality. An initialization strategy is presented to further improve the model quality. Finally, we propose an efficient distributed implementation of PCGS through vectorization, pre-processing, and a careful design of the concurrent data structures and communication strategy. Empirical studies show that our algorithm is 111 times more efficient than the previous open-source implementation for hLDA, with comparable or even better model quality. Our distributed implementation can extract 1,722 topics from a 131-million-document corpus with 28 billion tokens, which is 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the previous largest corpus, with 50 machines in 7 hours.


Smoothing for Bracketing Induction

AAAI Conferences

Bracketing induction is the unsupervised learning of hierarchical constituents without labeling their syntactic categories such as verb phrase (VP) from natural raw sentences. Constituent Context Model (CCM) is an effective generative model for the bracketing induction, but the CCM computes probability of a constituent in a very straightforward way no matter how long this constituent is. Such method causes severe data sparse problem because long constituents are more unlikely to appear in test set. To overcome the data sparse problem, this paper proposes to define a non-parametric Bayesian prior distribution, namely the Pitman-Yor Process (PYP) prior, over constituents for constituent smoothing. The PYP prior functions as a back-off smoothing method through using a hierarchical smoothing scheme (HSS). Various kinds of HSS are proposed in this paper. We find that two kinds of HSS are effective, attaining or significantly improving the state-of-the-art performance of the bracketing induction evaluated on standard treebanks of various languages, while another kind of HSS, which is commonly used for smoothing sequences by n-gram Markovization, is not effective for improving the performance of the CCM.


The Infinite Markov Model

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a nonparametric Bayesian method of estimating variable order Markov processes up to a theoretically infinite order. By extending a stick-breaking prior, which is usually defined on a unit interval, "vertically" to the trees of infinite depth associated with a hierarchical Chinese restaurant process, our model directly infers the hidden orders of Markov dependencies from which each symbol originated. Experiments on character and word sequences in natural language showed that the model has a comparative performance with an exponentially large full-order model, while computationally much efficient in both time and space. We expect that this basic model will also extend to the variable order hierarchical clustering of general data.


Estimating Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences for Restaurants and Travel Time Using Mobile Location Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper analyzes consumer choices over lunchtime restaurants using data from a sample of several thousand anonymous mobile phone users in the San Francisco Bay Area. The data is used to identify users' approximate typical morning location, as well as their choices of lunchtime restaurants. We build a model where restaurants have latent characteristics (whose distribution may depend on restaurant observables, such as star ratings, food category, and price range), each user has preferences for these latent characteristics, and these preferences are heterogeneous across users. Similarly, each item has latent characteristics that describe users' willingness to travel to the restaurant, and each user has individual-specific preferences for those latent characteristics. Thus, both users' willingness to travel and their base utility for each restaurant vary across user-restaurant pairs. We use a Bayesian approach to estimation. To make the estimation computationally feasible, we rely on variational inference to approximate the posterior distribution, as well as stochastic gradient descent as a computational approach. Our model performs better than more standard competing models such as multinomial logit and nested logit models, in part due to the personalization of the estimates. We analyze how consumers re-allocate their demand after a restaurant closes to nearby restaurants versus more distant restaurants with similar characteristics, and we compare our predictions to actual outcomes. Finally, we show how the model can be used to analyze counterfactual questions such as what type of restaurant would attract the most consumers in a given location.


Dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process for Abnormal Behaviour Detection in Video

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a novel dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process topic model that considers the dependence between successive observations. Conventional posterior inference algorithms for this kind of models require processing of the whole data through several passes. It is computationally intractable for massive or sequential data. We design the batch and online inference algorithms, based on the Gibbs sampling, for the proposed model. It allows to process sequential data, incrementally updating the model by a new observation. The model is applied to abnormal behaviour detection in video sequences. A new abnormality measure is proposed for decision making. The proposed method is compared with the method based on the non- dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process, for which we also derive the online Gibbs sampler and the abnormality measure. The results with synthetic and real data show that the consideration of the dynamics in a topic model improves the classification performance for abnormal behaviour detection.