Shen, Chunhua, Kim, Junae, Wang, Lei, Hengel, Anton

The learning of appropriate distance metrics is a critical problem in classification. In this work, we propose a boosting-based technique, termed BoostMetric, for learning a Mahalanobis distance metric. One of the primary difficulties in learning such a metric is to ensure that the Mahalanobis matrix remains positive semidefinite. Semidefinite programming is sometimes used to enforce this constraint, but does not scale well. BoostMetric is instead based on a key observation that any positive semidefinite matrix can be decomposed into a linear positive combination of trace-one rank-one matrices. BoostMetric thus uses rank-one positive semidefinite matrices as weak learners within an efficient and scalable boosting-based learning process. The resulting method is easy to implement, does not require tuning, and can accommodate various types of constraints. Experiments on various datasets show that the proposed algorithm compares favorably to those state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification accuracy and running time.

Park, Kyoungup (The Australian National University and NICTA) | Shen, Chunhua (University of Adelaide and NICTA) | Hao, Zhihui (Beijing Institute of Technology) | Kim, Junae (The Australian National University and NICTA)

We concern the problem of learning a Mahalanobis distance metric for improving nearest neighbor classification. Our work is built upon the large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN) classification framework. Due to the semidefiniteness constraint in the optimization problem of LMNN, it is not scalable in terms of the dimensionality of the input data. The original LMNN solver partially alleviates this problem by adopting alternating projection methods instead of standard interior-point methods. Still, at each iteration, the computation complexity is at least O(D 3 ) (D is the dimension of input data). In this work, we propose a column generation based algorithm to solve the LMNN optimization problem much more efficiently. Our algorithm is much more scalable in tha tat each iteration, it does not need full eigen-decomposition. Instead, we only need to find the leading eigen value and its corresponding eigen vector, which is of O(D 2 ) complexity. Experiments show the efficiency and efficacy of our algorithms.

Wang, Jun, Kalousis, Alexandros, Woznica, Adam

We study the problem of learning local metrics for nearest neighbor classification. Most previous works on local metric learning learn a number of local unrelated metrics. While this ''independence'' approach delivers an increased flexibility its downside is the considerable risk of overfitting. We present a new parametric local metric learning method in which we learn a smooth metric matrix function over the data manifold. Using an approximation error bound of the metric matrix function we learn local metrics as linear combinations of basis metrics defined on anchor points over different regions of the instance space. We constrain the metric matrix function by imposing on the linear combinations manifold regularization which makes the learned metric matrix function vary smoothly along the geodesics of the data manifold. Our metric learning method has excellent performance both in terms of predictive power and scalability. We experimented with several large-scale classification problems, tens of thousands of instances, and compared it with several state of the art metric learning methods, both global and local, as well as to SVM with automatic kernel selection, all of which it outperforms in a significant manner.

Shen, Chunhua, Welsh, Alan, Wang, Lei

In this work, we consider the problem of learning a positive semidefinite matrix. The critical issue is how to preserve positive semidefiniteness during the course of learning. Our algorithm is mainly inspired by LPBoost [1] and the general greedy convex optimization framework of Zhang [2]. We demonstrate the essence of the algorithm, termed PSDBoost (positive semidefinite Boosting), by focusing on a few different applications in machine learning. The proposed PSDBoost algorithm extends traditional Boosting algorithms in that its parameter is a positive semidefinite matrix with trace being one instead of a classifier. PSDBoost is based on the observation that any trace-one positive semidefinitematrix can be decomposed into linear convex combinations of trace-one rank-one matrices, which serve as base learners of PSDBoost. Numerical experiments are presented.

This paper proposes a boosting-based solution addressing metric learning problems for high-dimensional data. Distance measures have been used as natural measures of (dis)similarity and served as the foundation of various learning methods. The efficiency of distance-based learning methods heavily depends on the chosen distance metric. With increasing dimensionality and complexity of data, however, traditional metric learning methods suffer from poor scalability and the limitation due to linearity as the true signals are usually embedded within a low-dimensional nonlinear subspace. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear sparse metric learning algorithm via boosting. We restructure a global optimization problem into a forward stage-wise learning of weak learners based on a rank-one decomposition of the weight matrix in the Mahalanobis distance metric. A gradient boosting algorithm is devised to obtain a sparse rank-one update of the weight matrix at each step. Nonlinear features are learned by a hierarchical expansion of interactions incorporated within the boosting algorithm. Meanwhile, an early stopping rule is imposed to control the overall complexity of the learned metric. As a result, our approach guarantees three desirable properties of the final metric: positive semi-definiteness, low rank and element-wise sparsity. Numerical experiments show that our learning model compares favorably with the state-of-the-art methods in the current literature of metric learning.