Becker, Stephen (University of Colorado Boulder) | Kawas, Ban (IBM Research) | Petrik, Marek (University of New Hampshire)

Randomized matrix compression techniques, such as the Johnson-Lindenstrauss transform, have emerged as an effective and practical way for solving large-scale problems efficiently. With a focus on computational efficiency, however, forsaking solutions quality and accuracy becomes the trade-off. In this paper, we investigate compressed least-squares problems and propose new models and algorithms that address the issue of error and noise introduced by compression. While maintaining computational efficiency, our models provide robust solutions that are more accurate than those of classical compressed variants. We introduce tools from robust optimization together with a form of partial compression to improve the error-time trade-offs of compressed least-squares solvers. We develop an efficient solution algorithm for our Robust Partially-Compressed (RPC) model based on a reduction to a one-dimensional search.

Becker, Stephen, Kawas, Ban, Petrik, Marek, Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan N.

Randomized matrix compression techniques, such as the Johnson-Lindenstrauss transform, have emerged as an effective and practical way for solving large-scale problems efficiently. With a focus on computational efficiency, however, forsaking solutions quality and accuracy becomes the trade-off. In this paper, we investigate compressed least-squares problems and propose new models and algorithms that address the issue of error and noise introduced by compression. While maintaining computational efficiency, our models provide robust solutions that are more accurate--relative to solutions of uncompressed least-squares--than those of classical compressed variants. We introduce tools from robust optimization together with a form of partial compression to improve the error-time trade-offs of compressed least-squares solvers. We develop an efficient solution algorithm for our Robust Partially-Compressed (RPC) model based on a reduction to a one-dimensional search. We also derive the first approximation error bounds for Partially-Compressed least-squares solutions. Empirical results comparing numerous alternatives suggest that robust and partially compressed solutions are effectively insulated against aggressive randomized transforms.

Graph compression is a data analysis technique that consists in the replacement of parts of a graph by more general structural patterns in order to reduce its description length. It notably provides interesting exploration tools for the study of real, large-scale, and complex graphs which cannot be grasped at first glance. This article proposes a framework for the compression of temporal graphs, that is for the compression of graphs that evolve with time. This framework first builds on a simple and limited scheme, exploiting structural equivalence for the lossless compression of static graphs, then generalises it to the lossy compression of link streams, a recent formalism for the study of temporal graphs. Such generalisation relies on the natural extension of (bidimensional) relational data by the addition of a third temporal dimension. Moreover, we introduce an information-theoretic measure to quantify and to control the information that is lost during compression, as well as an algebraic characterisation of the space of possible compression patterns to enhance the expressiveness of the initial compression scheme. These contributions lead to the definition of a combinatorial optimisation problem, that is the Lossy Multistream Compression Problem, for which we provide an exact algorithm.

Minnen, David, Ballé, Johannes, Toderici, George D.

Recent models for learned image compression are based on autoencoders that learn approximately invertible mappings from pixels to a quantized latent representation. The transforms are combined with an entropy model, which is a prior on the latent representation that can be used with standard arithmetic coding algorithms to generate a compressed bitstream. Recently, hierarchical entropy models were introduced as a way to exploit more structure in the latents than previous fully factorized priors, improving compression performance while maintaining end-to-end optimization. Inspired by the success of autoregressive priors in probabilistic generative models, we examine autoregressive, hierarchical, and combined priors as alternatives, weighing their costs and benefits in the context of image compression. While it is well known that autoregressive models can incur a significant computational penalty, we find that in terms of compression performance, autoregressive and hierarchical priors are complementary and can be combined to exploit the probabilistic structure in the latents better than all previous learned models.

What does it mean to claim that a physical or natural system computes? One answer, endorsed here, is that computing is about programming a system to behave in different ways. This paper offers an account of what it means for a physical system to compute based on this notion. It proposes a behavioural characterisation of computing in terms of a measure of programmability, which reflects a system's ability to react to external stimuli. The proposed measure of programmability is useful for classifying computers in terms of the apparent algorithmic complexity of their evolution in time. I make some specific proposals in this connection and discuss this approach in the context of other behavioural approaches, notably Turing's test of machine intelligence. I also anticipate possible objections and consider the applicability of these proposals to the task of relating abstract computation to nature-like computation.