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Fractally Finding the Odd One Out: An Analogical Strategy For Noticing Novelty

AAAI Conferences

The Odd One Out test of intelligence consists of 3x3 matrix reasoning problems organized in 20 levels of difficulty. Addressing problems on this test appears to require integration of multiple cognitive abilities usually associated with creativity, including visual encoding, similarity assessment, pattern detection, and analogical transfer. We describe a novel fractal strategy for addressing visual analogy problems on the Odd One Out test. In our strategy, the relationship between images is encoded fractally, capturing important aspects of similarity as well as inherent self-similarity. The strategy starts with fractal representations encoded at a high level of resolution, but, if that is not sufficient to resolve ambiguity, it automatically adjusts itself to the right level of resolution for addressing a given problem. Similarly, the strategy starts with searching for fractally-derived similarity between simpler relationships, but, if that is not sufficient to resolve ambiguity, it automatically shifts to search for such similarity between higher-order relationships.  We present preliminary results and initial analysis from applying the fractal technique on nearly 3,000 problems from the Odd One Out test.


A Fractal Analogy Approach to the Raven's Test of Intelligence

AAAI Conferences

We present a fractal technique for addressing geometric analogy problems from the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test of general intelligence. In this method, an image is represented fractally, capturing its inherent self-similarity. We apply these fractal representations to problems from the Raven's test, and show how these representations afford a new method for solving complex geometric analogy problems. We present results using the fractal algorithm on all 60 problems from the Standard Progressive Matrices version of the Raven's test.


Fitzgerald

AAAI Conferences

Learning by observation is an important goal in developing complete intelligent robots that learn interactively. We present a visual analogy approach toward an integrated, intelligent system capable of learning skills from observation. In particular, we focus on the task of retrieving a previously acquired case similar to a new, observed skill. We describe three approaches to case retrieval: feature matching, feature transformation, and fractal analogy. SIFT features and fractal encoding were used to represent the visual state prior to the skill demonstration, the final state after the skill has been executed, and the visual transformation between the two states. We discovered that the three methods (feature matching, feature transformation, and fractal analogy) are useful for retrieval of similar skill cases under different conditions pertaining to the observed skills.


Symmetry as an Organizing Principle for Geometric Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The exploration of geometrical patterns stimulates imagination and encourages abstract reasoning which is a distinctive feature of human intelligence. In cognitive science, Gestalt principles such as symmetry have often explained significant aspects of human perception. We present a computational technique for building artificial intelligence (AI) agents that use symmetry as the organizing principle for addressing Dehaene's test of geometric intelligence \cite{dehaene2006core}. The performance of our model is on par with extant AI models of problem solving on the Dehaene's test and seems correlated with some elements of human behavior on the same test.


Addressing the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test of “General” Intelligence

AAAI Conferences

The Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test is a commonly used test of general human intelligence. The RPM is somewhat unique as a general intelligence test in that it focuses on visual problem solving, and in particular, on visual similarity and analogy. We are developing a small set of methods for problem solving in the RPM which use propositional, imagistic, and multimodal representations, respectively, to investigate how different representations can contribute to visual problem solving and how the effects of their use might emerge in behavior.