Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.
Deep Learning (DL) techniques for Natural Language Processing have been evolving remarkably fast. Recently, the DL advances in language modeling, machine translation and paragraph understanding are so prominent that the potential of DL in Software Engineering cannot be overlooked, especially in the field of program learning. To facilitate further research and applications of DL in this field, we provide a comprehensive review to categorize and investigate existing DL methods for source code modeling and generation. To address the limitations of the traditional source code models, we formulate common program learning tasks under an encoder-decoder framework. After that, we introduce recent DL mechanisms suitable to solve such problems. Then, we present the state-of-the-art practices and discuss their challenges with some recommendations for practitioners and researchers as well.
This paper proposes a novel and statistical method of ability estimation based on acquisition distribution for a personalized computer aided question generation. This method captures the learning outcomes over time and provides a flexible measurement based on the acquisition distributions instead of precalibration. Compared to the previous studies, the proposed method is robust, especially when an ability of a student is unknown. The results from the empirical data show that the estimated abilities match the actual abilities of learners, and the pretest and post-test of the experimental group show significant improvement. These results suggest that this method can serves as the ability estimation for a personalized computer-aided testing environment.
We present LearningQ, a challenging educational question generation dataset containing over 230K document-question pairs. It includes 7K instructor-designed questions assessing knowledge concepts being taught and 223K learner-generated questions seeking in-depth understanding of the taught concepts. We show that, compared to existing datasets that can be used to generate educational questions, LearningQ (i) covers a wide range of educational topics and (ii) contains long and cognitively demanding documents for which question generation requires reasoning over the relationships between sentences and paragraphs. As a result, a significant percentage of LearningQ questions (~30%) require higher-order cognitive skills to solve (such as applying, analyzing), in contrast to existing question-generation datasets that are designed mostly for the lowest cognitive skill level (i.e. remembering). To understand the effectiveness of existing question generation methods in producing educational questions, we evaluate both rule-based and deep neural network based methods on LearningQ. Extensive experiments show that state-of-the-art methods which perform well on existing datasets cannot generate useful educational questions. This implies that LearningQ is a challenging test bed for the generation of high-quality educational questions and worth further investigation. We open-source the dataset and our codes at https://dataverse.mpi-sws.org/dataverse/icwsm18.
When you ask Siri for directions, peruse Netflix's recommendations or get a fraud alert from your bank, these interactions are led by computer systems using large amounts of data to predict your needs. The market is only going to grow. By 2020, the research firm IDC predicts that AI will help drive worldwide revenues to over $47 billion, up from $8 billion in 2016. Still, Coursera co-founder ANDREW NG, adjunct professor of computer science, says fears that AI will replace humans are misplaced: "Despite all the hype and excitement about AI, it's still extremely limited today relative to what human intelligence is." Ng, who is chief scientist at Baidu Research, spoke to the Graduate School of Business community as part of a series presented by the Stanford MSx Program, which offers experienced leaders a one-year, full-time learning experience.