Collaborating Authors

Scalable Global Optimization via Local Bayesian Optimization Machine Learning

Bayesian optimization has recently emerged as a popular method for the sample-efficient optimization of expensive black-box functions. However, the application to high-dimensional problems with several thousand observations remains challenging, and on difficult problems Bayesian optimization is often not competitive with other paradigms. In this paper we take the view that this is due to the implicit homogeneity of the global probabilistic models and an overemphasized exploration that results from global acquisition. This motivates the design of a local probabilistic approach for global optimization of large-scale high-dimensional problems. We propose the $\texttt{TuRBO}$ algorithm that fits a collection of local models and performs a principled global allocation of samples across these models via an implicit bandit approach. A comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that $\texttt{TuRBO}$ outperforms state-of-the-art methods from machine learning and operations research on problems spanning reinforcement learning, robotics, and the natural sciences.

Learning Search Space Partition for Black-box Optimization using Monte Carlo Tree Search Artificial Intelligence

High dimensional black-box optimization has broad applications but remains a challenging problem to solve. Given a set of samples $\{\vx_i, y_i\}$, building a global model (like Bayesian Optimization (BO)) suffers from the curse of dimensionality in the high-dimensional search space, while a greedy search may lead to sub-optimality. By recursively splitting the search space into regions with high/low function values, recent works like LaNAS shows good performance in Neural Architecture Search (NAS), reducing the sample complexity empirically. In this paper, we coin LA-MCTS that extends LaNAS to other domains. Unlike previous approaches, LA-MCTS learns the partition of the search space using a few samples and their function values in an online fashion. While LaNAS uses linear partition and performs uniform sampling in each region, our LA-MCTS adopts a nonlinear decision boundary and learns a local model to pick good candidates. If the nonlinear partition function and the local model fits well with ground-truth black-box function, then good partitions and candidates can be reached with much fewer samples. LA-MCTS serves as a \emph{meta-algorithm} by using existing black-box optimizers (e.g., BO, TuRBO) as its local models, achieving strong performance in general black-box optimization and reinforcement learning benchmarks, in particular for high-dimensional problems.

Adaptive Local Bayesian Optimization Over Multiple Discrete Variables Machine Learning

In the machine learning algorithms, the choice of the hyperparameter is often an art more than a science, requiring labor-intensive search with expert experience. Therefore, automation on hyperparameter optimization to exclude human intervention is a great appeal, especially for the black-box functions. Recently, there have been increasing demands of solving such concealed tasks for better generalization, though the task-dependent issue is not easy to solve. The Black-Box Optimization challenge (NeurIPS 2020) required competitors to build a robust black-box optimizer across different domains of standard machine learning problems. This paper describes the approach of team KAIST OSI in a step-wise manner, which outperforms the baseline algorithms by up to +20.39%. We first strengthen the local Bayesian search under the concept of region reliability. Then, we design a combinatorial kernel for a Gaussian process kernel. In a similar vein, we combine the methodology of Bayesian and multi-armed bandit,(MAB) approach to select the values with the consideration of the variable types; the real and integer variables are with Bayesian, while the boolean and categorical variables are with MAB. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that our method outperforms the existing methods across different tasks.

High-Dimensional Bayesian Optimization with Manifold Gaussian Processes Machine Learning

Bayesian optimization (BO) is a powerful approach for seeking the global optimum of expensive black-box functions and has proven successful for fine tuning hyper-parameters of machine learning models. The Bayesian optimization routine involves learning a response surface and maximizing a score to select the most valuable inputs to be queried at the next iteration. These key steps are subject to the curse of dimensionality so that Bayesian optimization does not scale beyond 10--20 parameters. In this work, we address this issue and propose a high-dimensional BO method that learns a nonlinear low-dimensional manifold of the input space. We achieve this with a multi-layer neural network embedded in the covariance function of a Gaussian process. This approach applies unsupervised dimensionality reduction as a byproduct of a supervised regression solution. This also allows exploiting data efficiency of Gaussian process models in a Bayesian framework. We also introduce a nonlinear mapping from the manifold to the high-dimensional space based on multi-output Gaussian processes and jointly train it end-to-end via marginal likelihood maximization. We show this intrinsically low-dimensional optimization outperforms recent baselines in high-dimensional BO literature on a set of benchmark functions in 60 dimensions.

Scaling Gaussian Process Regression with Derivatives

Neural Information Processing Systems

Gaussian processes (GPs) with derivatives are useful in many applications, including Bayesian optimization, implicit surface reconstruction, and terrain reconstruction. Fitting a GP to function values and derivatives at $n$ points in $d$ dimensions requires linear solves and log determinants with an ${n(d 1) \times n(d 1)}$ positive definite matrix-- leading to prohibitive $\mathcal{O}(n 3d 3)$ computations for standard direct methods. We propose iterative solvers using fast $\mathcal{O}(nd)$ matrix-vector multiplications (MVMs), together with pivoted Cholesky preconditioning that cuts the iterations to convergence by several orders of magnitude, allowing for fast kernel learning and prediction. Our approaches, together with dimensionality reduction, allows us to scale Bayesian optimization with derivatives to high-dimensional problems and large evaluation budgets. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.