In this work, we target at the problem of offline sketch parsing, in which the temporal orders of strokes are unavailable. It is more challenging than most of existing work, which usually leverages the temporal information to reduce the search space. Different from traditional approaches in which thousands of candidate groups are selected for recognition, we propose the idea of shapeness estimation to greatly reduce this number in a very fast way. Based on the observation that most of hand-drawn shapes with well-defined closed boundaries can be clearly differentiated from non-shapes if normalized into a very small size, we propose an efficient shapeness estimation method. A compact feature representation as well as its efficient extraction method is also proposed to speed up this process. Based on the proposed shapeness estimation, we present a three-stage cascade framework for offline sketch parsing. The shapeness estimation technique in this framework greatly reduces the number of false positives, resulting in a 96.2% detection rate with only 32 candidate group proposals, which is two orders of magnitude less than existing methods. Extensive experiments show the superiority of the proposed framework over state-of-the-art works on sketch parsing in both effectiveness and efficiency, even though they leveraged the temporal information of strokes.
In this paper, we target at the problem of sketch recognition. We systematically study how to incorporate users' correction and editing into isolated and full sketch recognition. This is a natural and necessary interaction in real systems such as Visio where very similar shapes exist. First, a novel algorithm is proposed to mine the prior shape knowledge for three editing modes. Second, to differentiate visually similar shapes, a novel symbol recognition algorithm is introduced by leveraging the learnt shape knowledge. Then, a novel editing detection algorithm is proposed to facilitate symbol recognition. Furthermore, both of the symbol recognizer and the editing detector are systematically incorporated into the full sketch recognition. Finally, based on the proposed algorithms, a real-time sketch recognition system is built to recognize hand-drawn flowcharts and diagrams with flexible interactions. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Objects in freely-drawn sketches often have no spatial or temporal separation, making object recognition difficult. We present a two-step stroke-grouping algorithm that first classifies individual strokes according to the type of object to which they belong, then groups strokes with like classifications into clusters representing individual objects. The first step facilitates clustering by naturally separating the strokes, and both steps fluidly integrate spatial and temporal information. Our approach to grouping is unique in its formulation as an efficient classification task rather than, for example, an expensive search task. Our single-stroke classifier performs at least as well as existing single-stroke classifiers on text vs. nontext classification, and we present the first three-way single-stroke classification results. Our stroke grouping results are the first reported of their kind; our grouping algorithm correctly groups between 86% and 91% of the ink in diagrams from two domains, with between 69% and 79% of shapes being perfectly clustered.
We propose a new sketch recognition framework that combines a rich representation of low level visual appearance with a graphical model for capturing high level relationships between symbols. This joint model of appearance and context allows our framework to be less sensitive to noise and drawing variations, improving accuracy and robustness. The result is a recognizer that is better able to handle the wide range of drawing styles found in messy freehand sketches. We evaluate our work on two real-world domains, molecular diagrams and electrical circuit diagrams, and show that our combined approach significantly improves recognition performance.
We present a sketch understanding system for networklike diagrams consisting of symbols linked together. This system employs a novel parser to automatically extract symbols from a continuous stream of pen strokes. The parser uses geometric information to enumerate candidate symbols, and then uses domain knowledge to prune away unlikely candidates. The candidates are classified with a novel, domainindependent, probabilistic, feature-based symbol recognizer. Domain knowledge and context are used to correct parsing and recognition errors. To demonstrate our system, we used it to create a sketch-based interface for an electric circuit analysis program.