Reducing Runtime by Recycling Samples Machine Learning

Contrary to the situation with stochastic gradient descent, we argue that when using stochastic methods with variance reduction, such as SDCA, SAG or SVRG, as well as their variants, it could be beneficial to reuse previously used samples instead of fresh samples, even when fresh samples are available. We demonstrate this empirically for SDCA, SAG and SVRG, studying the optimal sample size one should use, and also uncover be-havior that suggests running SDCA for an integer number of epochs could be wasteful.

An Error Detection and Correction Framework for Connectomics

Neural Information Processing Systems

We define and study error detection and correction tasks that are useful for 3D reconstruction of neurons from electron microscopic imagery, and for image segmentation more generally. Both tasks take as input the raw image and a binary mask representing a candidate object. For the error detection task, the desired output is a map of split and merge errors in the object. For the error correction task, the desired output is the true object. We call this object mask pruning, because the candidate object mask is assumed to be a superset of the true object. We train multiscale 3D convolutional networks to perform both tasks. We find that the error-detecting net can achieve high accuracy. The accuracy of the error-correcting net is enhanced if its input object mask is ``advice'' (union of erroneous objects) from the error-detecting net.

Generalization Dynamics in LMS Trained Linear Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Recent progress in network design demonstrates that nonlinear feedforward neural networkscan perform impressive pattern classification for a variety of real-world applications (e.g., Le Cun et al., 1990; Waibel et al., 1989). Various simulations and relationships between the neural network and machine learning theoretical literatures alsosuggest that too large a number of free parameters ("weight overfitting") could substantially reduce generalization performance.

Grammatical Error Detection for Corrective Feedback Provision in Oral Conversations

AAAI Conferences

The demand for computer-assisted language learning systems that can provide corrective feedback on language learners’ speaking has increased. However, it is not a trivial task to detect grammatical errors in oral conversations because of the unavoidable errors of automatic speech recognition systems. To provide corrective feedback, a novel method to detect grammatical errors in speaking performance is proposed. The proposed method consists of two sub-models: the grammaticality-checking model and the error-type classification model. We automatically generate grammatical errors that learners are likely to commit and construct error patterns based on the articulated errors. When a particular speech pattern is recognized, the grammaticality-checking model performs a binary classification based on the similarity between the error patterns and the recognition result using the confidence score. The error-type classification model chooses the error type based on the most similar error pattern and the error frequency extracted from a learner corpus. The grammaticality checking method largely outperformed the two comparative models by 56.36% and 42.61% in F-score while keeping the false positive rate very low. The error-type classification model exhibited very high performance with a 99.6% accuracy rate. Because high precision and a low false positive rate are important criteria for the language-tutoring setting, the proposed method will be helpful for intelligent computer-assisted language learning systems.