This paper offers a multi-disciplinary review of knowledge acquisition methods in human activity systems. The review captures the degree of involvement of various types of agencies in the knowledge acquisition process, and proposes a classification with three categories of methods: the human agent, the human-inspired agent, and the autonomous machine agent methods. In the first two categories, the acquisition of knowledge is seen as a cognitive task analysis exercise, while in the third category knowledge acquisition is treated as an autonomous knowledge-discovery endeavour. The motivation for this classification stems from the continuous change over time of the structure, meaning and purpose of human activity systems, which are seen as the factor that fuelled researchers' and practitioners' efforts in knowledge acquisition for more than a century. We show through this review that the KA field is increasingly active due to the higher and higher pace of change in human activity, and conclude by discussing the emergence of a fourth category of knowledge acquisition methods, which are based on red-teaming and co-evolution.
In this paper, we investigate learning temporal abstractions in cooperative multi-agent systems using the options framework (Sutton et al, 1999) and provide a model-free algorithm for this problem. First, we address the planning problem for the decentralized POMDP represented by the multi-agent system, by introducing a common information approach. We use common beliefs and broadcasting to solve an equivalent centralized POMDP problem. Then, we propose the Distributed Option Critic (DOC) algorithm, motivated by the work of Bacon et al (2017) in the single-agent setting. Our approach uses centralized option evaluation and decentralized intra-option improvement. We analyze theoretically the asymptotic convergence of DOC and validate its performance in grid-world environments, where we implement DOC using a deep neural network. Our experiments show that DOC performs competitively with state-of-the-art algorithms and that it is scalable when the number of agents increases.
We analyze the value-loading problem. This is the problem of encoding moral values into an AI agent interacting with a complex environment. Like many before, we argue that this is both a major concern and an extremely challenging problem. Solving it will likely require years, if not decades, of multidisciplinary work by teams of top scientists and experts. Given how uncertain the timeline of human-level AI research is, we thus argue that a pragmatic partial solution should be designed as soon as possible. To this end, we propose a preliminary research program. This roadmap identifies several key steps. We hope that this will allow scholars, engineers and decision-makers to better grasp the upcoming difficulties, and to foresee how they can best contribute to the global effort.
Abstract-- Feature Selection (FS) plays an important role in learning and classification tasks. The object of FS is to select the relevant and non-redundant features. Considering the huge amount number of features in real-world applications, FS methods using batch learning technique can't resolve big data problem especially when data arrive sequentially. In this paper, we propose an online feature selection system which resolves this problem. More specifically, we treat the problem of online supervised feature selection for binary classification as a decision-making problem. A philosophical vision to this problem leads to a hybridization between two important domains: feature selection using online learning technique (OFS) and automated negotiation (AN). The proposed OFS system called MOANOFS (Multi-Objective Automated Negotiation based Online Feature Selection) uses two levels of decision. In the first level, from n learners (or OFS methods), we decide which are the k trustful ones (with high confidence or trust value). These elected k learners will participate in the second level. In this level, we integrate our proposed Multilateral Automated Negotiation based OFS (MANOFS) method to decide finally which is the best solution or which are relevant features. We show that MOANOFS system is applicable to different domains successfully and achieves high accuracy with several real-world applications. Index Terms-- Feature selection, online learning, multi-objective automated negotiation, trust, classification, big data. URING the last three decades, Feature Selection (FS) has been extensively studied in Data Mining , , Pattern Classification ,  and Machine Learning , . FS is defined as the process of selecting a subset of relevant features and removing the redundant ones from a dataset for building effective prediction models. In recent years, an enormous increase in data (news, medical imaging) has been observed which allows an increase in redundant information. Even worse, the redundancy of irrelevant data has a negative impact on the performance of classification methods associated.