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Bayesian Color Constancy with Non-Gaussian Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a Bayesian approach to color constancy which utilizes a non-Gaussian probabilistic model of the image formation process. The parameters of this model are estimated directly from an uncalibrated image set and a small number of additional algorithmic parameters are chosen using cross validation. The algorithm is empirically shown to exhibit RMS error lower than other color constancy algorithms based on the Lambertian surface reflectance model when estimating the illuminants of a set of test images. This is demonstrated via a direct performance comparison utilizing a publicly available set of real world test images and code base.



Color Constancy by Learning to Predict Chromaticity from Luminance

Neural Information Processing Systems

Color constancy is the recovery of true surface color from observed color, and requires estimating the chromaticity of scene illumination to correct for the bias it induces. In this paper, we show that the per-pixel color statistics of natural scenes---without any spatial or semantic context---can by themselves be a powerful cue for color constancy. Specifically, we describe an illuminant estimation method that is built around a classifier for identifying the true chromaticity of a pixel given its luminance (absolute brightness across color channels). During inference, each pixel's observed color restricts its true chromaticity to those values that can be explained by one of a candidate set of illuminants, and applying the classifier over these values yields a distribution over the corresponding illuminants. A global estimate for the scene illuminant is computed through a simple aggregation of these distributions across all pixels. We begin by simply defining the luminance-to-chromaticity classifier by computing empirical histograms over discretized chromaticity and luminance values from a training set of natural images. These histograms reflect a preference for hues corresponding to smooth reflectance functions, and for achromatic colors in brighter pixels. Despite its simplicity, the resulting estimation algorithm outperforms current state-of-the-art color constancy methods. Next, we propose a method to learn the luminance-to-chromaticity classifier end-to-end. Using stochastic gradient descent, we set chromaticity-luminance likelihoods to minimize errors in the final scene illuminant estimates on a training set. This leads to further improvements in accuracy, most significantly in the tail of the error distribution.


A VLSI Neural Network for Color Constancy

Neural Information Processing Systems

A system for color correction has been designed, built, and tested successfully; theessential components are three custom chips built using subthreshold analogCMOS VLSI. The system, based on Land's Retinex theory of color constancy, produces colors similar in many respects to those produced by the visual system. Resistive grids implemented in analog VLSI perform the smoothing operation central to the algorithm at video rates. With the electronic system, the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm are explored.


A VLSI Neural Network for Color Constancy

Neural Information Processing Systems

A system for color correction has been designed, built, and tested successfully; the essential components are three custom chips built using subthreshold analog CMOS VLSI. The system, based on Land's Retinex theory of color constancy, produces colors similar in many respects to those produced by the visual system. Resistive grids implemented in analog VLSI perform the smoothing operation central to the algorithm at video rates. With the electronic system, the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm are explored.