Ontology reuse aims to foster interoperability and facilitate knowledge reuse. Several approaches are typically evaluated by ontology engineers when bootstrapping a new project. However, current practices are often motivated by subjective, case-by-case decisions, which hamper the definition of a recommended behaviour. In this chapter we argue that to date there are no effective solutions for supporting developers' decision-making process when deciding on an ontology reuse strategy. The objective is twofold: (i) to survey current approaches to ontology reuse, presenting motivations, strategies, benefits and limits, and (ii) to analyse two representative approaches and discuss their merits.
To present the biodiversity information, a semantic model is required that connects all kinds of data about living creatures and their habitats. The model must be able to encode human knowledge for machines to be understood. Ontology offers the richest machine-interpretable (rather than just machine-processable) and explicit semantics that are being extensively used in the biodiversity domain. Various ontologies are developed for the biodiversity domain however a review of the current landscape shows that these ontologies are not capable to define the Indian biodiversity information though India is one of the megadiverse countries. To semantically analyze the Indian biodiversity information, it is crucial to build an ontology that describes all the essential terms of this domain from the unstructured format of the data available on the web. Since, the curation of the ontologies heavily depends on the domain where these are implemented hence there is no ideal methodology is defined yet to be ready for universal use. The aim of this article is to develop an ontology that semantically encodes all the terms of Indian biodiversity information in all its dimensions based on the proposed methodology. The comprehensive evaluation of the proposed ontology depicts that ontology is well built in the specified domain.
An ontology is a formal representation of domain knowledge, which can be interpreted by machines. In recent years, ontologies have become a major tool for domain knowledge representation and a core component of many knowledge management systems, decision support systems and other intelligent systems, inter alia, in the context of agriculture. A review of the existing literature on agricultural ontologies, however, reveals that most of the studies, which propose agricultural ontologies, are lacking an explicit evaluation procedure. This is undesired because without well-structured evaluation processes, it is difficult to consider the value of ontologies to research and practice. Moreover, it is difficult to rely on such ontologies and share them on the Semantic Web or between semantic aware applications. With the growing number of ontology-based agricultural systems and the increasing popularity of the Semantic Web, it becomes essential that such development and evaluation methods are put forward to guide future efforts of ontology development. Our work contributes to the literature on agricultural ontologies, by presenting a method for evaluating agricultural ontologies, which seems to be missing from most existing studies on agricultural ontologies. The framework supports the matching of appropriate evaluation methods for a given ontology based on the ontology's purpose.
Ontologies form the basic interest in various computer science disciplines such as semantic web, information retrieval, database design, etc. They aim at providing a formal, explicit and shared conceptualization and understanding of common domains between different communities. In addition, they allow for concepts and their constraints of a specific domain to be explicitly defined. However, the distributed nature of ontology development and the differences in viewpoints of the ontology engineers have resulted in the so called "semantic heterogeneity" between ontologies. Semantic heterogeneity constitutes the major obstacle against achieving interoperability between ontologies. To overcome this obstacle, we present a multi-purpose framework which exploits the WordNet generic knowledge base for: i) Discovering and correcting the incorrect semantic relations between the concepts of the ontology in a specific domain. This step is a primary step of ontology merging. ii) Merging domain-specific ontologies through computing semantic relations between their concepts. iii) Handling the issue of missing concepts in WordNet through the acquisition of statistical information on the Web. And iv) Enriching WordNet with these missing concepts. An experimental instantiation of the framework and comparisons with state-of-the-art syntactic and semantic-based systems validate our proposal.
Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides many relevant terms are explained in order to provide a basic understanding of ontologies.