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Local Algorithms for Approximate Inference in Minor-Excluded Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a new local approximation algorithm for computing MAP and log-partition function for arbitrary exponential family distribution represented by a finite-valued pair-wise Markov random field (MRF), say G. Our algorithm is based on decomposing G into appropriately chosen small components; computing estimates locally in each of these components and then producing a good global solution. We prove that the algorithm can provide approximate solution within arbitrary accuracy when $G$ excludes some finite sized graph as its minor and G has bounded degree: all Planar graphs with bounded degree are examples of such graphs. The running time of the algorithm is $\Theta(n)$ (n is the number of nodes in G), with constant dependent on accuracy, degree of graph and size of the graph that is excluded as a minor (constant for Planar graphs). Our algorithm for minor-excluded graphs uses the decomposition scheme of Klein, Plotkin and Rao (1993). In general, our algorithm works with any decomposition scheme and provides quantifiable approximation guarantee that depends on the decomposition scheme.


Scalable $k$-NN graph construction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The $k$-NN graph has played a central role in increasingly popular data-driven techniques for various learning and vision tasks; yet, finding an efficient and effective way to construct $k$-NN graphs remains a challenge, especially for large-scale high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a new approach to construct approximate $k$-NN graphs with emphasis in: efficiency and accuracy. We hierarchically and randomly divide the data points into subsets and build an exact neighborhood graph over each subset, achieving a base approximate neighborhood graph; we then repeat this process for several times to generate multiple neighborhood graphs, which are combined to yield a more accurate approximate neighborhood graph. Furthermore, we propose a neighborhood propagation scheme to further enhance the accuracy. We show both theoretical and empirical accuracy and efficiency of our approach to $k$-NN graph construction and demonstrate significant speed-up in dealing with large scale visual data.


Inference by Minimizing Size, Divergence, or their Sum

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We speed up marginal inference by ignoring factors that do not significantly contribute to overall accuracy. In order to pick a suitable subset of factors to ignore, we propose three schemes: minimizing the number of model factors under a bound on the KL divergence between pruned and full models; minimizing the KL divergence under a bound on factor count; and minimizing the weighted sum of KL divergence and factor count. All three problems are solved using an approximation of the KL divergence than can be calculated in terms of marginals computed on a simple seed graph. Applied to synthetic image denoising and to three different types of NLP parsing models, this technique performs marginal inference up to 11 times faster than loopy BP, with graph sizes reduced up to 98%-at comparable error in marginals and parsing accuracy. We also show that minimizing the weighted sum of divergence and size is substantially faster than minimizing either of the other objectives based on the approximation to divergence presented here.


A Quest for Structure: Jointly Learning the Graph Structure and Semi-Supervised Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is effectively used for numerous classification problems, thanks to its ability to make use of abundant unlabeled data. The main assumption of various SSL algorithms is that the nearby points on the data manifold are likely to share a label. Graph-based SSL constructs a graph from point-cloud data as an approximation to the underlying manifold, followed by label inference. It is no surprise that the quality of the constructed graph in capturing the essential structure of the data is critical to the accuracy of the subsequent inference step [6]. How should one construct a graph from the input point-cloud data for graph-based SSL? In this work we introduce a new, parallel graph learning framework (called PG-learn) for the graph construction step of SSL. Our solution has two main ingredients: (1) a gradient-based optimization of the edge weights (more specifically, different kernel bandwidths in each dimension) based on a validation loss function, and (2) a parallel hyperparameter search algorithm with an adaptive resource allocation scheme. In essence, (1) allows us to search around a (random) initial hyperparameter configuration for a better one with lower validation loss. Since the search space of hyperparameters is huge for high-dimensional problems, (2) empowers our gradient-based search to go through as many different initial configurations as possible, where runs for relatively unpromising starting configurations are terminated early to allocate the time for others. As such, PG-learn is a carefully-designed hybrid of random and adaptive search. Through experiments on multi-class classification problems, we show that PG-learn significantly outperforms a variety of existing graph construction schemes in accuracy (per fixed time budget for hyperparameter tuning), and scales more effectively to high dimensional problems.


Edge but not Least: Cross-View Graph Pooling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph neural networks have emerged as a powerful model for graph representation learning to undertake graph-level prediction tasks. Various graph pooling methods have been developed to coarsen an input graph into a succinct graph-level representation through aggregating node embeddings obtained via graph convolution. However, most graph pooling methods are heavily node-centric and are unable to fully leverage the crucial information contained in global graph structure. This paper presents a cross-view graph pooling (Co-Pooling) method to better exploit crucial graph structure information. The proposed Co-Pooling fuses pooled representations learnt from both node view and edge view. Through cross-view interaction, edge-view pooling and node-view pooling seamlessly reinforce each other to learn more informative graph-level representations. Co-Pooling has the advantage of handling various graphs with different types of node attributes. Extensive experiments on a total of 15 graph benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposed method, demonstrating its superior performance over state-of-the-art pooling methods on both graph classification and graph regression tasks.