Models of crowd behavior facilitate analysis and prediction of human group behavior, where people are affected by each other's presence. Unfortunately, existing models leave many open challenges. In particular, psychology models often offer only qualitative description, while computer science models are often simplistic, and are not reusable from one simulated phenomenon to the next. We propose a novel model of crowd behavior, based on Festinger's Social Comparison Theory (SCT). We propose a concrete algorithmic framework for SCT, and evaluate its implementation in several crowd behavior scenarios. Results from task measures and human judges evaluation shows that the SCT model produces improved results compared to base models from the literature.
In crowded multi-agent navigation environments, the motion of the agents is significantly constrained by the motion of the nearby agents. This makes planning paths very difficult and leads to inefficient global motion. To address this problem, we propose a new distributed approach to coordinate the motions of agents in crowded environments. With our approach, agents take into account the velocities and goals of their neighbors and optimize their motion accordingly and in real-time. We experimentally validate our coordination approach in a variety of scenarios and show that its performance scales to scenarios with hundreds of agents.
Animals in social foraging not only present the ordered and aggregated group movement but also the individual movement patterns of Lévy walks that are characterized as the power-law frequency distribution of flight lengths. The environment and the conspecific effects between group members are two fundamental inducements to the collective behavior. However, most previous models emphasize one of the two inducements probably because of the great difficulty to solve the behavior conflict caused by two inducements. Here, we propose an environment-driven social force model to simulate overall foraging process of an agent group. The social force concept is adopted to quantify the conspecific effects and the interactions between individuals and the environment. The cohesion-first rule is implemented to solve the conflict, which means that individuals preferentially guarantee the collective cohesion under the environmental effect. The obtained results efficiently comply with the empirical reports that mean the Lévy walk pattern of individual movement paths and the high consistency and cohesion of the entity group. By extensive simulations, we also validate the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors in comparison with several classic models
Although the traits emerged in a mass gathering are often non-deliberative, the act of mass impulse may lead to irre- vocable crowd disasters. The two-fold increase of carnage in crowd since the past two decades has spurred significant advances in the field of computer vision, towards effective and proactive crowd surveillance. Computer vision stud- ies related to crowd are observed to resonate with the understanding of the emergent behavior in physics (complex systems) and biology (animal swarm). These studies, which are inspired by biology and physics, share surprisingly common insights, and interesting contradictions. However, this aspect of discussion has not been fully explored. Therefore, this survey provides the readers with a review of the state-of-the-art methods in crowd behavior analysis from the physics and biologically inspired perspectives. We provide insights and comprehensive discussions for a broader understanding of the underlying prospect of blending physics and biology studies in computer vision.
Robust behavior in complex, dynamic environments mandates that intelligent agents autonomously monitor their own run-time behavior, detect and diagnose failures, and attempt recovery. This challenge is intensified in multiagent settings, where the coordinated and competitive behaviors of other agents affect an agent's own performance. Previous approaches to this problem have often focused on single agent domains and have failed to address or exploit key facets of multi-agent domains, such as handling team failures. We present SAM, a complementary approach to monitoring and diagnosis for multi-agent domains that is particularly well-suited for collaborative settings. SAM includes the following key novel concepts: First, SAM's failure detection technique, inspired by social psychology, utilizes other agents as information sources and detects failures both in an agent and in its teammates. Second, SAM performs social diagnosis, reasoning about the failures in its team using an explicit model of teamwork (previously, teamwork models have been employed only in prescribing agent behaviors in teamwork). Third, SAM employs model sharing to alleviate the inherent inefficiencies associated with representing multiple agent models. We have implemented SAM in a complex, realistic multi-agent domain, and provide detailed empirical results assessing its benefits.