In the U.S., individuals give more than 200 billion dollars to over 50 thousand charities each year, yet how people make these choices is not well understood. In this study, we use data from CharityNavigator.org and web browsing data from Bing toolbar to understand charitable giving choices. Our main goal is to use data on charities' overhead expenses to better understand efficiency in the charity marketplace. A preliminary analysis indicates that the average donor is "wasting" more than 15% of their contribution by opting for poorly run organizations as opposed to higher rated charities in the same Charity Navigator categorical group. However, charities within these groups may not represent good substitutes for each other. We use text analysis to identify substitutes for charities based on their stated missions and validate these substitutes with crowd-sourced labels. Using these similarity scores, we simulate market outcomes using web browsing and revenue data. With more realistic similarity requirements, the estimated loss drops by 75%—much of what looked like inefficient giving can be explained by crowd-validated similarity requirements that are not fulfilled by most charities within the same category. A choice experiment helps us further investigate the extent to which a recommendation system could impact the market. The results indicate that money could be redirected away from the long-tail of inefficient organizations. If widely adopted, the savings would be in the billions of dollars, highlighting the role the web could have in shaping this important market.
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Rogstadius, Jakob (University of Madeira) | Kostakos, Vassilis (University of Madeira) | Kittur, Aniket (Carnegie Mellon University) | Smus, Boris (University of Madeira) | Laredo, Jim (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center) | Vukovic, Maja (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center)
Crowdsourced labor markets represent a powerful new paradigm for accomplishing work. Understanding the motivating factors that lead to high quality work could have significant benefits. However, researchers have so far found that motivating factors such as increased monetary reward generally increase workers’ willingness to accept a task or the speed at which a task is completed, but do not improve the quality of the work. We hypothesize that factors that increase the intrinsic motivation of a task – such as framing a task as helping others – may succeed in improving output quality where extrinsic motivators such as increased pay do not. In this paper we present an experiment testing this hypothesis along with a novel experimental design that enables controlled experimentation with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators in Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, a popular crowdsourcing task market. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation can indeed improve the quality of workers’ output, confirming our hypothesis. Furthermore, we find a synergistic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators that runs contrary to previous literature suggesting “crowding out” effects. Our results have significant practical and theoretical implications for crowd work.
Xu, Anbang (IBM Research - Almaden) | Liu, Haibin (IBM Research - Almaden) | Gou, Liang (IBM Research - Almaden) | Akkiraju, Rama (IBM Research - Almaden) | Mahmud, Jalal (IBM Research - Almaden) | Sinha, Vibha (IBM Research - Almaden) | Hu, Yuheng (IBM Research - Almaden) | Qiao, Mu (IBM Research - Almaden)
Brand personality has been shown to affect a variety of user behaviors such as individual preferences and social interactions. Despite intensive research efforts in human personality assessment, little is known about brand personality and its relationship with social media. Leveraging the theory in marketing, we analyze how brand personality associates with its contributing factors embodied in social media. Based on the analysis of over 10K survey responses and a large corpus of social media data from 219 brands, we quantify the relative importance of factors driving brand personality. The brand personality model developed with social media data achieves predicted R 2 values as high as 0.67. We conclude by illustrating how modeling brand personality can help users find brands suiting their personal characteristics and help companies manage brand perceptions.
Yang, Jiang (University of Michigan) | Morris, Meredith Ringel (Microsoft Research) | Teevan, Jaime (Microsoft Research) | Adamic, Lada A. (University of Michigan) | Ackerman, Mark S. (University of Michigan)
Online social networking tools are used around the world by people to ask questions of their friends, because friends provide direct, reliable, contextualized, and interactive responses. However, although the tools used in different cultures for question asking are often very similar, the way they are used can be very different, reflecting unique inherent cultural characteristics. We present the results of a survey designed to elicit cultural differences in people’s social question asking behaviors across the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and India. The survey received responses from 933 people distributed across the four countries who held similar job roles and were employed by a single organization. Responses included information about the questions they ask via social networking tools, and their motivations for asking and answering questions online. The results reveal culture as a consistently significant factor in predicting people’s social question and answer behavior. The prominent cultural differences we observe might be traced to people’s inherent cultural characteristics (e.g., their cognitive patterns and social orientation), and should be comprehensively considered in designing social search systems.