Future buildings will offer new convenience, comfort, and efficiency possibilities to their residents. Changes will occur to the way people live as technology involves into people's lives and information processing is fully integrated into their daily living activities and objects. The future expectation of smart buildings includes making the residents' experience as easy and comfortable as possible. The massive streaming data generated and captured by smart building appliances and devices contains valuable information that needs to be mined to facilitate timely actions and better decision making. Machine learning and big data analytics will undoubtedly play a critical role to enable the delivery of such smart services. In this paper, we survey the area of smart building with a special focus on the role of techniques from machine learning and big data analytics. This survey also reviews the current trends and challenges faced in the development of smart building services.
No comprehensive review of Bayesian networks (BNs) in healthcare has been published in the past, making it difficult to organize the research contributions in the present and identify challenges and neglected areas that need to be addressed in the future. This unique and novel scoping review of BNs in healthcare provides an analytical framework for comprehensively characterizing the domain and its current state. The review shows that: (1) BNs in healthcare are not used to their full potential; (2) a generic BN development process is lacking; (3) limitations exists in the way BNs in healthcare are presented in the literature, which impacts understanding, consensus towards systematic methodologies, practice and adoption of BNs; and (4) a gap exists between having an accurate BN and a useful BN that impacts clinical practice. This review empowers researchers and clinicians with an analytical framework and findings that will enable understanding of the need to address the problems of restricted aims of BNs, ad hoc BN development methods, and the lack of BN adoption in practice. To map the way forward, the paper proposes future research directions and makes recommendations regarding BN development methods and adoption in practice.
Activity and motion analysis has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool for mental disorders. However, to-date, little work has been performed in turning stratification measures of activity into useful symptom markers. The research presented in this thesis has focused on the identification of objective activity and behaviour metrics that could be useful for the analysis of mental health symptoms in the above mentioned dimensions. Particular attention is given to the analysis of objective differences between disorders, as well as identification of clinical episodes of mania and depression in bipolar patients, and deterioration in borderline personality disorder patients. A principled framework is proposed for mHealth monitoring of psychiatric patients, based on measurable changes in behaviour, represented in physical activity time series, collected via mobile and wearable devices. The framework defines methods for direct computational analysis of symptoms in disorganisation and psychomotor dimensions, as well as measures for indirect assessment of mood, using patterns of physical activity, sleep and circadian rhythms. The approach of computational behaviour analysis, proposed in this thesis, has the potential for early identification of clinical deterioration in ambulatory patients, and allows for the specification of distinct and measurable behavioural phenotypes, thus enabling better understanding and treatment of mental disorders.
Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion MRI (dMRI) are non-invasive imaging modalities that allow in-vivo analysis of a patient's brain network (known as a connectome). Use of these technologies has enabled faster and better diagnoses and treatments of neurological disorders and a deeper understanding of the human brain. Recently, researchers have been exploring the application of machine learning models to connectome data in order to predict clinical outcomes and analyze the importance of subnetworks in the brain. Connectome data has unique properties, which present both special challenges and opportunities when used for machine learning. The purpose of this work is to review the literature on the topic of applying machine learning models to MRI-based connectome data. This field is growing rapidly and now encompasses a large body of research. To summarize the research done to date, we provide a comparative, structured summary of 77 relevant works, tabulated according to different criteria, that represent the majority of the literature on this topic. (We also published a living version of this table online at http://connectomelearning.cs.sfu.ca that the community can continue to contribute to.) After giving an overview of how connectomes are constructed from dMRI and fMRI data, we discuss the variety of machine learning tasks that have been explored with connectome data. We then compare the advantages and drawbacks of different machine learning approaches that have been employed, discussing different feature selection and feature extraction schemes, as well as the learning models and regularization penalties themselves. Throughout this discussion, we focus particularly on how the methods are adapted to the unique nature of graphical connectome data. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the current state of the art and by outlining what we believe are strategic directions for future research.