Applying Heuristic Evaluation to Human-Robot Interaction Systems

AAAI Conferences

Though attention to evaluating human-robot interfaces has increased in recent years, there are relatively few reports of using evaluation tools during the development of humanrobot interaction (HRI) systems to improve their designs. Heuristic evaluation is a technique suitable for such applications that has become popular in the humancomputer interaction (HCI) community. However, it requires usability heuristics applicable to the system environment. This work contributes a set of heuristics appropriate for use with HRI systems, derived from a variety of sources both in and out of the HRI field. Evaluators have successfully used the heuristics on an HRI system, demonstrating their utility against standard measures of heuristic effectiveness.


ace

AAAI Conferences

Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) can be used to significantly speed up problem solving. Is there sufficient structure in the definition of a problem space to enable a static analyzer, using EBL-style optimizations, to speed up problem solving without utilizing training examples?


Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search

AAAI Conferences

Recent years have witnessed the success of hashingtechniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. Inpractice, multiple hash tables are usually employed toretrieve more desired results from all hit buckets ofeach table. However, there are rare works studying theunified approach to constructing multiple informativehash tables except the widely used random way. In thispaper, we regard the table construction as a selectionproblem over a set of candidate hash functions. Withthe graph representation of the function set, we proposean efficient solution that sequentially applies normal-ized dominant set to finding the most informative andindependent hash functions for each table. To furtherreduce the redundancy between tables, we explore thereciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where thehash function graph is updated with high weights em-phasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previoushash tables. The construction method is general andcompatible with different types of hashing algorithmsusing different feature spaces and/or parameter settings.Extensive experiments on two large-scale benchmarksdemonstrate that the proposed method outperforms bothnaive construction method and state-of-the-art hashingalgorithms, with up to 65.93% accuracy gains.


Adaptive Problem-solving for Large-scale Scheduling Problems: A Case Study

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Although most scheduling problems are NP-hard, domain specific techniques perform well in practice but are quite expensive to construct. In adaptive problem-solving solving, domain specific knowledge is acquired automatically for a general problem solver with a flexible control architecture. In this approach, a learning system explores a space of possible heuristic methods for one well-suited to the eccentricities of the given domain and problem distribution. In this article, we discuss an application of the approach to scheduling satellite communications. Using problem distributions based on actual mission requirements, our approach identifies strategies that not only decrease the amount of CPU time required to produce schedules, but also increase the percentage of problems that are solvable within computational resource limitations.


Modeling the Experience of Emotion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Affective computing has proven to be a viable field of research comprised of a large number of multidisciplinary researchers resulting in work that is widely published. The majority of this work consists of computational models of emotion recognition, computational modeling of causal factors of emotion and emotion expression through rendered and robotic faces. A smaller part is concerned with modeling the effects of emotion, formal modeling of cognitive appraisal theory and models of emergent emotions. Part of the motivation for affective computing as a field is to better understand emotional processes through computational modeling. One of the four major topics in affective computing is computers that have emotions (the others are recognizing, expressing and understanding emotions). A critical and neglected aspect of having emotions is the experience of emotion (Barrett, Mesquita, Ochsner, and Gross, 2007): what does the content of an emotional episode look like, how does this content change over time and when do we call the episode emotional. Few modeling efforts have these topics as primary focus. The launch of a journal on synthetic emotions should motivate research initiatives in this direction, and this research should have a measurable impact on emotion research in psychology. I show that a good way to do so is to investigate the psychological core of what an emotion is: an experience. I present ideas on how the experience of emotion could be modeled and provide evidence that several computational models of emotion are already addressing the issue.