Multi-Task Learning (MTL) is a learning paradigm in machine learning and its aim is to leverage useful information contained in multiple related tasks to help improve the generalization performance of all the tasks. In this paper, we give a survey for MTL. First, we classify different MTL algorithms into several categories, including feature learning approach, low-rank approach, task clustering approach, task relation learning approach, and decomposition approach, and then discuss the characteristics of each approach. In order to improve the performance of learning tasks further, MTL can be combined with other learning paradigms including semi-supervised learning, active learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning, multi-view learning and graphical models. When the number of tasks is large or the data dimensionality is high, batch MTL models are difficult to handle this situation and online, parallel and distributed MTL models as well as dimensionality reduction and feature hashing are reviewed to reveal their computational and storage advantages. Many real-world applications use MTL to boost their performance and we review representative works. Finally, we present theoretical analyses and discuss several future directions for MTL.
Facial pain expression is an important modality for assessing pain, especially when the patient's verbal ability to communicate is impaired. The facial muscle-based action units (AUs), which are defined by the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), have been widely studied and are highly reliable as a method for detecting facial expressions (FE) including valid detection of pain. Unfortunately, FACS coding by humans is a very time-consuming task that makes its clinical use prohibitive. Significant progress on automated facial expression recognition (AFER) has led to its numerous successful applications in FACS-based affective computing problems. However, only a handful of studies have been reported on automated pain detection (APD), and its application in clinical settings is still far from a reality. In this paper, we review the progress in research that has contributed to automated pain detection, with focus on 1) the framework-level similarity between spontaneous AFER and APD problems; 2) the evolution of system design including the recent development of deep learning methods; 3) the strategies and considerations in developing a FACS-based pain detection framework from existing research; and 4) introduction of the most relevant databases that are available for AFER and APD studies. We attempt to present key considerations in extending a general AFER framework to an APD framework in clinical settings. In addition, the performance metrics are also highlighted in evaluating an AFER or an APD system.
In this paper, we study the problem of understanding human sentiments from large scale collection of Internet images based on both image features and contextual social network information (such as friend comments and user description). Despite the great strides in analyzing user sentiment based on text information, the analysis of sentiment behind the image content has largely been ignored. Thus, we extend the significant advances in text-based sentiment prediction tasks to the higher-level challenge of predicting the underlying sentiments behind the images. We show that neither visual features nor the textual features are by themselves sufficient for accurate sentiment labeling. Thus, we provide a way of using both of them. We leverage the low-level visual features and mid-level attributes of an image, and formulate sentiment prediction problem as a non-negative matrix tri-factorization framework, which has the flexibility to incorporate multiple modalities of information and the capability to learn from heterogeneous features jointly. We develop an optimization algorithm for finding a local-optima solution under the proposed framework. With experiments on two large-scale datasets, we show that the proposed method improves significantly over existing state-of-the-art methods.
Machine Learning (ML) is widely used for several tasks with time-series and biosensor data such as for human activity recognition, electronic health records data-based predictions (Ismail Fawaz et al., 2019), and real-time bionsensor-based decisions. V arious classification goals are addressed related to electrocardiography (ECG) (Jambukia et al., 2015), elec-troencephalography (EEG) (Craik et al., 2019; Dose et al., 2018), and electromyograpy (EMG) (Ketyk et al., 2019; Hu et al., 2018; Patricia et al., 2014; Du et al., 2017). Sensing hand gestures can be done by means of wearables or by means of image or video analysis of hand or finger motion. A wearable-based detection can physically rely on measuring the acceleration and rotations of our body parts (arms, hands or fingers) with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors or by measuring the myo-electric signals generated by the various muscles of our arms or fingers with EMG sensors. Surface EMG (sEMG) records muscle activity from the surface of the skin which is above the muscle being evaluated. The signal is collected via surface electrodes. We are interested in sEMG-sensor placement to the forearm and performing hand gesture recognition with ML.
With the recent renaissance of deep convolution neural networks, encouraging breakthroughs have been achieved on the supervised recognition tasks, where each class has sufficient training data and fully annotated training data. However, to scale the recognition to a large number of classes with few or now training samples for each class remains an unsolved problem. One approach to scaling up the recognition is to develop models capable of recognizing unseen categories without any training instances, or zero-shot recognition/ learning. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing zero-shot recognition techniques covering various aspects ranging from representations of models, and from datasets and evaluation settings. We also overview related recognition tasks including one-shot and open set recognition which can be used as natural extensions of zero-shot recognition when limited number of class samples become available or when zero-shot recognition is implemented in a real-world setting. Importantly, we highlight the limitations of existing approaches and point out future research directions in this existing new research area.