Compositional semantic aims at constructing the meaning of phrases or sentences according to the compositionality of word meanings. In this paper, we propose to synchronously learn the representations of individual words and extracted high-frequency phrases. Representations of extracted phrases are considered as gold standard for constructing more general operations to compose the representation of unseen phrases. We propose a grammatical type specific model that improves the composition flexibility by adopting vector-tensor-vector operations. Our model embodies the compositional characteristics of traditional additive and multiplicative model. Empirical result shows that our model outperforms state-of-the-art composition methods in the task of computing phrase similarities.
Answering compositional questions requiring multi-step reasoning is challenging. We introduce an end-to-end differentiable model for interpreting questions about a knowledge graph (KG), which is inspired by formal approaches to semantics. Each span of text is represented by a denotation in a KG and a vector that captures ungrounded aspects of meaning. Learned composition modules recursively combine constituent spans, culminating in a grounding for the complete sentence which answers the question. For example, to interpret "not green", the model represents "green" as a set of KG entities and "not" as a trainable ungrounded vector---and then uses this vector to parameterize a composition function that performs a complement operation. For each sentence, we build a parse chart subsuming all possible parses, allowing the model to jointly learn both the composition operators and output structure by gradient descent from end-task supervision. The model learns a variety of challenging semantic operators, such as quantifiers, disjunctions and composed relations, and infers latent syntactic structure. It also generalizes well to longer questions than seen in its training data, in contrast to RNN, its tree-based variants, and semantic parsing baselines.
Robust and flexible event representations are important to many core areas in language understanding. Scripts were proposed early on as a way of representing sequences of events for such understanding, and has recently attracted renewed attention. However, obtaining effective representations for modeling script-like event sequences is challenging. It requires representations that can capture event-level and scenario-level semantics. We propose a new tensor-based composition method for creating event representations. The method captures more subtle semantic interactions between an event and its entities and yields representations that are effective at multiple event-related tasks. With the continuous representations, we also devise a simple schema generation method which produces better schemas compared to a prior discrete representation based method. Our analysis shows that the tensors capture distinct usages of a predicate even when there are only subtle differences in their surface realizations.
Wang, Shaonan (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Zhang, Jiajun (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Lin, Nan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Zong, Chengqing (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Multimodal models have been proven to outperform text-based approaches on learning semantic representations. However, it still remains unclear what properties are encoded in multimodal representations, in what aspects do they outperform the single-modality representations, and what happened in the process of semantic compositionality in different input modalities. Considering that multimodal models are originally motivated by human concept representations, we assume that correlating multimodal representations with brain-based semantics would interpret their inner properties to answer the above questions. To that end, we propose simple interpretation methods based on brain-based componential semantics. First we investigate the inner properties of multimodal representations by correlating them with corresponding brain-based property vectors. Then we map the distributed vector space to the interpretable brain-based componential space to explore the inner properties of semantic compositionality. Ultimately, the present paper sheds light on the fundamental questions of natural language understanding, such as how to represent the meaning of words and how to combine word meanings into larger units.
We consider the problem of minimizing the composition of a smooth (nonconvex) function and a smooth vector mapping, where the inner mapping is in the form of an expectation over some random variable or a finite sum. We propose a stochastic composite gradient method that employs incremental variance-reduced estimators for both the inner vector mapping and its Jacobian. We show that this method achieves the same orders of complexity as the best known first-order methods for minimizing expected-value and finite-sum nonconvex functions, despite the additional outer composition which renders the composite gradient estimator biased. This finding enables a much broader range of applications in machine learning to benefit from the low complexity of incremental variance-reduction methods. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.