A Bayesian Approach toward Active Learning for Collaborative Filtering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Collaborative filtering is a useful technique for exploiting the preference patterns of a group of users to predict the utility of items for the active user. In general, the performance of collaborative filtering depends on the number of rated examples given by the active user. The more the number of rated examples given by the active user, the more accurate the predicted ratings will be. Active learning provides an effective way to acquire the most informative rated examples from active users. Previous work on active learning for collaborative filtering only considers the expected loss function based on the estimated model, which can be misleading when the estimated model is inaccurate. This paper takes one step further by taking into account of the posterior distribution of the estimated model, which results in more robust active learning algorithm. Empirical studies with datasets of movie ratings show that when the number of ratings from the active user is restricted to be small, active learning methods only based on the estimated model don't perform well while the active learning method using the model distribution achieves substantially better performance.

Bayesian Generative Active Deep Learning


Deep learning models have demonstrated outstanding performance in several problems, but their training process tends to require immense amounts of computational and human resources for training and labeling, constraining the types of problems that can be tackled. Therefore, the design of effective training methods that require small labeled training sets is an important research direction that will allow a more effective use of resources. Among current approaches designed to address this issue, two are particularly interesting: data augmentation and active learning. Data augmentation achieves this goal by artificially generating new training points, while active learning relies on the selection of the "most informative" subset of unlabeled training samples to be labelled by an oracle. Although successful in practice, data augmentation can waste computational resources because it indiscriminately generates samples that are not guaranteed to be informative, and active learning selects a small subset of informative samples (from a large un-annotated set) that may be insufficient for the training process. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian generative active deep learning approach that combines active learning with data augmentation – we provide theoretical and empirical evidence (MNIST, CIFAR-$\{10,100\}$, and SVHN) that our approach has more efficient training and better classification results than data augmentation and active learning.

On Finding Relevant Variables in Discrete Bayesian Network Inference

AAAI Conferences

A central task in discrete Bayesian network (BN) inference is to determine those variables relevant to answer a given query. Two linear algorithms for this task explore the possibly relevant and active parts of a BN, respectively. We empirically compare these two methods along with a variation of each.

Dropout-based Active Learning for Regression

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Active learning is relevant and challenging for high-dimensional regression models when the annotation of the samples is expensive. Yet most of the existing sampling methods cannot be applied to large-scale problems, consuming too much time for data processing. In this paper, we propose a fast active learning algorithm for regression, tailored for neural network models. It is based on uncertainty estimation from stochastic dropout output of the network. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets show comparable or better performance (depending on the accuracy metric) as compared to the baselines. This approach can be generalized to other deep learning architectures. It can be used to systematically improve a machine-learning model as it offers a computationally efficient way of sampling additional data.

Deep Bayesian Active Learning with Image Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Even though active learning forms an important pillar of machine learning, deep learning tools are not prevalent within it. Deep learning poses several difficulties when used in an active learning setting. First, active learning (AL) methods generally rely on being able to learn and update models from small amounts of data. Recent advances in deep learning, on the other hand, are notorious for their dependence on large amounts of data. Second, many AL acquisition functions rely on model uncertainty, yet deep learning methods rarely represent such model uncertainty. In this paper we combine recent advances in Bayesian deep learning into the active learning framework in a practical way. We develop an active learning framework for high dimensional data, a task which has been extremely challenging so far, with very sparse existing literature. Taking advantage of specialised models such as Bayesian convolutional neural networks, we demonstrate our active learning techniques with image data, obtaining a significant improvement on existing active learning approaches. We demonstrate this on both the MNIST dataset, as well as for skin cancer diagnosis from lesion images (ISIC2016 task).