Implicit probabilistic models are a flexible class of models defined by a simulation process for data. They form the basis for models which encompass our understanding of the physical word. Despite this fundamental nature, the use of implicit models remains limited due to challenge in positing complex latent structure in them, and the ability to inference in such models with large data sets. In this paper, we first introduce the hierarchical implicit models (HIMs). HIMs combine the idea of implicit densities with hierarchical Bayesian modeling thereby defining models via simulators of data with rich hidden structure.
Conditional generative adversarial networks (cGANs) have gained a considerable attention in recent years due to its class-wise controllability and superior quality for complex generation tasks. We introduce a simple yet effective approach to improving cGANs by measuring the discrepancy between the data distribution and the model distribution on given samples. The proposed measure, coined the gap of log-densities (GOLD), provides an effective self-diagnosis for cGANs while being efficiently, computed from the discriminator. We propose three applications of the GOLD: example re-weighting, rejection sampling, and active learning, which improve the training, inference, and data selection of cGANs, respectively. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform corresponding baselines for all three applications on different image datasets.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) and probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) are the two main tools for statistical modeling. While DNNs provide the ability to model rich and complex relationships between input and output variables, PGMs provide the ability to encode dependencies among the output variables themselves. End-to-end training methods for models with structured graphical dependencies on top of neural predictions have recently emerged as a principled way of combining these two paradigms. While these models have proven to be powerful in discriminative settings with discrete outputs, extensions to structured continuous spaces, as well as performing efficient inference in these spaces, are lacking. We propose non-parametric structured output networks (NSON), a modular approach that cleanly separates a non-parametric, structured posterior representation from a discriminative inference scheme but allows joint end-to-end training of both components.
We present a method for approximate inference for a broad class of non-conjugate probabilistic models. In particular, for the family of generalized linear model target densities we describe a rich class of variational approximating densities which can be best fit to the target by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Our approach is based on using the Fourier representation which we show results in efficient and scalable inference.
Boosting variational inference (BVI) approximates an intractable probability density by iteratively building up a mixture of simple component distributions one at a time, using techniques from sparse convex optimization to provide both computational scalability and approximation error guarantees. But the guarantees have strong conditions that do not often hold in practice, resulting in degenerate component optimization problems; and we show that the ad-hoc regularization used to prevent degeneracy in practice can cause BVI to fail in unintuitive ways. We thus develop universal boosting variational inference (UBVI), a BVI scheme that exploits the simple geometry of probability densities under the Hellinger metric to prevent the degeneracy of other gradient-based BVI methods, avoid difficult joint optimizations of both component and weight, and simplify fully-corrective weight optimizations. We show that for any target density and any mixture component family, the output of UBVI converges to the best possible approximation in the mixture family, even when the mixture family is misspecified. We develop a scalable implementation based on exponential family mixture components and standard stochastic optimization techniques.