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Global Belief Recursive Neural Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Recursive Neural Networks have recently obtained state of the art performance on several natural language processing tasks. However, because of their feedforward architecture they cannot correctly predict phrase or word labels that are determined by context. This is a problem in tasks such as aspect-specific sentiment classification which tries to, for instance, predict that the word Android is positive in the sentence Android beats iOS. We introduce global belief recursive neural networks (GB-RNNs) which are based on the idea of extending purely feedforward neural networks to include one feedbackward step during inference. This allows phrase level predictions and representations to give feedback to words. We show the effectiveness of this model on the task of contextual sentiment analysis. We also show that dropout can improve RNN training and that a combination of unsupervised and supervised word vector representations performs better than either alone. The feedbackward step improves F1 performance by 3% over the standard RNN on this task, obtains state-of-the-art performance on the SemEval 2013 challenge and can accurately predict the sentiment of specific entities.


Deep Recursive Neural Networks for Compositionality in Language

Neural Information Processing Systems

Recursive neural networks comprise a class of architecture that can operate on structured input. They have been previously successfully applied to model compositionality in natural language using parse-tree-based structural representations. Even though these architectures are deep in structure, they lack the capacity for hierarchical representation that exists in conventional deep feed-forward networks as well as in recently investigated deep recurrent neural networks. In this work we introduce a new architecture --- a deep recursive neural network (deep RNN) --- constructed by stacking multiple recursive layers. We evaluate the proposed model on the task of fine-grained sentiment classification. Our results show that deep RNNs outperform associated shallow counterparts that employ the same number of parameters. Furthermore, our approach outperforms previous baselines on the sentiment analysis task, including a multiplicative RNN variant as well as the recently introduced paragraph vectors, achieving new state-of-the-art results. We provide exploratory analyses of the effect of multiple layers and show that they capture different aspects of compositionality in language.


Boosting Network Weight Separability via Feed-Backward Reconstruction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a new evaluation metric and boosting method for weight separability in neural network design. In contrast to general visual recognition methods designed to encourage both intra-class compactness and inter-class separability of latent features, we focus on estimating linear independence of column vectors in weight matrix and improving the separability of weight vectors. To this end, we propose an evaluation metric for weight separability based on semi-orthogonality of a matrix and Frobenius distance, and the feed-backward reconstruction loss which explicitly encourages weight separability between the column vectors in the weight matrix. The experimental results on image classification and face recognition demonstrate that the weight separability boosting via minimization of feed-backward reconstruction loss can improve the visual recognition performance, hence universally boosting the performance on various visual recognition tasks.


When Are Tree Structures Necessary for Deep Learning of Representations?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recursive neural models, which use syntactic parse trees to recursively generate representations bottom-up, are a popular architecture. But there have not been rigorous evaluations showing for exactly which tasks this syntax-based method is appropriate. In this paper we benchmark {\bf recursive} neural models against sequential {\bf recurrent} neural models (simple recurrent and LSTM models), enforcing apples-to-apples comparison as much as possible. We investigate 4 tasks: (1) sentiment classification at the sentence level and phrase level; (2) matching questions to answer-phrases; (3) discourse parsing; (4) semantic relation extraction (e.g., {\em component-whole} between nouns). Our goal is to understand better when, and why, recursive models can outperform simpler models. We find that recursive models help mainly on tasks (like semantic relation extraction) that require associating headwords across a long distance, particularly on very long sequences. We then introduce a method for allowing recurrent models to achieve similar performance: breaking long sentences into clause-like units at punctuation and processing them separately before combining. Our results thus help understand the limitations of both classes of models, and suggest directions for improving recurrent models.


Feedbackward Decoding for Semantic Segmentation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a novel approach for semantic segmentation that uses an encoder in the reverse direction to decode. Many semantic segmentation networks adopt a feedforward encoder-decoder architecture. Typically, an input is first downsampled by the encoder to extract high-level semantic features and continues to be fed forward through the decoder module to recover low-level spatial clues. Our method works in an alternative direction that lets information flow backward from the last layer of the encoder towards the first. The encoder performs encoding in the forward pass and the same network performs decoding in the backward pass. Therefore, the encoder itself is also the decoder. Compared to conventional encoder-decoder architectures, ours doesn't require additional layers for decoding and further reuses the encoder weights thereby reducing the total number of parameters required for processing. We show by using only the 13 convolutional layers from VGG-16 plus one tiny classification layer, our model significantly outperforms other frequently cited models that are also adapted from VGG-16. On the Cityscapes semantic segmentation benchmark, our model uses 50.0% less parameters than SegNet and achieves an 18.1% higher "IoU class" score; it uses 28.3% less parameters than DeepLab LargeFOV and the achieved "IoU class" score is 3.9% higher; it uses 89.1% fewer parameters than FCN-8s and the achieved "IoU class" score is 3.1% higher. Our code will be publicly available on Github later.