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Composing Answer from Multi-spans for Reading Comprehension

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a novel method to generate answers for non-extraction machine reading comprehension (MRC) tasks whose answers cannot be simply extracted as one span from the given passages. Using a pointer network-style extractive decoder for such type of MRC may result in unsatisfactory performance when the ground-truth answers are given by human annotators or highly re-paraphrased from parts of the passages. On the other hand, using generative decoder cannot well guarantee the resulted answers with well-formed syntax and semantics when encountering long sentences. Therefore, to alleviate the obvious drawbacks of both sides, we propose an answer making-up method from extracted multi-spans that are learned by our model as highly confident $n$-gram candidates in the given passage. That is, the returned answers are composed of discontinuous multi-spans but not just one consecutive span in the given passages anymore. The proposed method is simple but effective: empirical experiments on MS MARCO show that the proposed method has a better performance on accurately generating long answers, and substantially outperforms two competitive typical one-span and Seq2Seq baseline decoders.


A Question-Focused Multi-Factor Attention Network for Question Answering

AAAI Conferences

Neural network models recently proposed for question answering (QA) primarily focus on capturing the passage-question relation. However, they have minimal capability to link relevant facts distributed across multiple sentences which is crucial in achieving deeper understanding, such as performing multi-sentence reasoning, co-reference resolution, etc. They also do not explicitly focus on the question and answer type which often plays a critical role in QA. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end question-focused multi-factor attention network for answer extraction. Multi-factor attentive encoding using tensor-based transformation aggregates meaningful facts even when they are located in multiple sentences. To implicitly infer the answer type, we also propose a max-attentional question aggregation mechanism to encode a question vector based on the important words in a question. During prediction, we incorporate sequence-level encoding of the first wh-word and its immediately following word as an additional source of question type information. Our proposed model achieves significant improvements over the best prior state-of-the-art results on three large-scale challenging QA datasets, namely NewsQA, TriviaQA, and SearchQA.


GenNet : Reading Comprehension with Multiple Choice Questions using Generation and Selection model

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Multiple-choice machine reading comprehension is difficult task as its required machines to select the correct option from a set of candidate or possible options using the given passage and question.Reading Comprehension with Multiple Choice Questions task,required a human (or machine) to read a given passage, question pair and select the best one option from n given options. There are two different ways to select the correct answer from the given passage. Either by selecting the best match answer to by eliminating the worst match answer. Here we proposed GenNet model, a neural network-based model. In this model first we will generate the answer of the question from the passage and then will matched the generated answer with given answer, the best matched option will be our answer. For answer generation we used S-net (Tan et al., 2017) model trained on SQuAD and to evaluate our model we used Large-scale RACE (ReAding Comprehension Dataset From Examinations) (Lai et al.,2017).


Improving Neural Question Generation using Answer Separation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural question generation (NQG) is the task of generating a question from a given passage with deep neural networks. Previous NQG models suffer from a problem that a significant proportion of the generated questions include words in the question target, resulting in the generation of unintended questions. In this paper, we propose answer-separated seq2seq, which better utilizes the information from both the passage and the target answer. By replacing the target answer in the original passage with a special token, our model learns to identify which interrogative word should be used. We also propose a new module termed keyword-net, which helps the model better capture the key information in the target answer and generate an appropriate question. Experimental results demonstrate that our answer separation method significantly reduces the number of improper questions which include answers. Consequently, our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art NQG models.


Assertion-Based QA With Question-Aware Open Information Extraction

AAAI Conferences

We present assertion based question answering (ABQA), an open domain question answering task that takes a question and a passage as inputs, and outputs a semi-structured assertion consisting of a subject, a predicate and a list of arguments. An assertion conveys more evidences than a short answer span in reading comprehension, and it is more concise than a tedious passage in passage-based QA. These advantages make ABQA more suitable for human-computer interaction scenarios such as voice-controlled speakers. Further progress towards improving ABQA requires richer supervised dataset and powerful models of text understanding. To remedy this, we introduce a new dataset called WebAssertions, which includes hand-annotated QA labels for 358,427 assertions in 55,960 web passages. To address ABQA, we develop both generative and extractive approaches. The backbone of our generative approach is sequence to sequence learning. In order to capture the structure of the output assertion, we introduce a hierarchical decoder that first generates the structure of the assertion and then generates the words of each field. The extractive approach is based on learning to rank. Features at different levels of granularity are designed to measure the semantic relevance between a question and an assertion. Experimental results show that our approaches have the ability to infer question-aware assertions from a passage. We further evaluate our approaches by incorporating the ABQA results as additional features in passage-based QA. Results on two datasets show that ABQA features significantly improve the accuracy on passage-based QA.