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Risk-Aware Reasoning for Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Risk-A ware Reasoning for Autonomous V ehicles Majid Khonji, Jorge Dias, and Lakmal Seneviratne Abstract -- A significant barrier to deploying autonomous vehicles (A Vs) on a massive scale is safety assurance. Several technical challenges arise due to the uncertain environment in which A Vs operate such as road and weather conditions, errors in perception and sensory data, and also model inaccuracy. In this paper, we propose a system architecture for risk-aware A Vs capable of reasoning about uncertainty and deliberately bounding the risk of collision below a given threshold. We discuss key challenges in the area, highlight recent research developments, and propose future research directions in three subsystems. First, a perception subsystem that detects objects within a scene while quantifying the uncertainty that arises from different sensing and communication modalities. Second, an intention recognition subsystem that predicts the driving-style and the intention of agent vehicles (and pedestrians). Third, a planning subsystem that takes into account the uncertainty, from perception and intention recognition subsystems, and propagates all the way to control policies that explicitly bound the risk of collision.


Verification for Machine Learning, Autonomy, and Neural Networks Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This survey presents an overview of verification techniques for autonomous systems, with a focus on safety-critical autonomous cyber-physical systems (CPS) and subcomponents thereof. Autonomy in CPS is enabling by recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) through approaches such as deep neural networks (DNNs), embedded in so-called learning enabled components (LECs) that accomplish tasks from classification to control. Recently, the formal methods and formal verification community has developed methods to characterize behaviors in these LECs with eventual goals of formally verifying specifications for LECs, and this article presents a survey of many of these recent approaches.


An Overview of Some Recent Developments in Bayesian Problem-Solving Techniques

AI Magazine

The last few years have seen a surge in interest in the use of techniques from Bayesian decision theory to address problems in AI. Decision theory provides a normative framework for representing and reasoning about decision problems under uncertainty. Within the context of this framework, researchers in uncertainty in the AI community have been developing computational techniques for building rational agents and representations suited to engineering their knowledge bases. The articles cover the topics of inference in Bayesian networks, decision-theoretic planning, and qualitative decision theory. Here, I provide a brief introduction to Bayesian networks and then cover applications of Bayesian problem-solving techniques, knowledge-based model construction and structured representations, and the learning of graphic probability models.


An Overview of Some Recent Developments in Bayesian Problem-Solving Techniques

AI Magazine

The last few years have seen a surge in interest in the use of techniques from Bayesian decision theory to address problems in AI. Decision theory provides a normative framework for representing and reasoning about decision problems under uncertainty. Within the context of this framework, researchers in uncertainty in the AI community have been developing computational techniques for building rational agents and representations suited to engineering their knowledge bases. This special issue reviews recent research in Bayesian problem-solving techniques. The articles cover the topics of inference in Bayesian networks, decision-theoretic planning, and qualitative decision theory. Here, I provide a brief introduction to Bayesian networks and then cover applications of Bayesian problem-solving techniques, knowledge-based model construction and structured representations, and the learning of graphic probability models.


Modeling Sensing and Perception Errors towards Robust Decision Making in Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sensing and Perception (S&P) is a crucial component of an autonomous system (such as a robot), especially when deployed in highly dynamic environments where it is required to react to unexpected situations. This is particularly true in case of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) driving on public roads. However, the current evaluation metrics for perception algorithms are typically designed to measure their accuracy per se and do not account for their impact on the decision making subsystem(s). This limitation does not help developers and third party evaluators to answer a critical question: is the performance of a perception subsystem sufficient for the decision making subsystem to make robust, safe decisions? In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology towards answering this question. At the same time, we show how to analyze the impact of different kinds of sensing and perception errors on the behavior of the autonomous system.