In the literature, various approaches have been proposedto address the domain adaptation problem in sentiment classification (also called cross-domainsentiment classification). However, the adaptation performance normally much suffers when the data distributionsin the source and target domains differ significantly. In this paper, we suggest to perform activelearning for cross-domain sentiment classification by actively selecting a smallamount of labeled data in the target domain. Accordingly, we propose an novel activelearning approach for cross-domain sentiment classification. First, we traintwo individual classifiers, i.e., the source and target classifiers with thelabeled data from the source and target respectively. Then, the two classifiersare employed to select informative samples with the selection strategy of QueryBy Committee (QBC). Third, the two classifier is combined to make theclassification decision. Importantly, the two classifiers are trained by fullyexploiting the unlabeled data in the target domain with the label propagation(LP) algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our active learning approach for cross-domainsentiment classification over some strong baselines.
Incorporating semantic features from the WordNet lexical database is among one of the many approaches that have been tried to improve the predictive performance of text classification models. The intuition behind this is that keywords in the training set alone may not be extensive enough to enable generation of a universal model for a category, but if we incorporate the word relationships in WordNet, a more accurate model may be possible. Other researchers have previously evaluated the effectiveness of incorporating WordNet synonyms, hypernyms, and hyponyms into text classification models. Generally, they have found that improvements in accuracy using features derived from these relationships are dependent upon the nature of the text corpora from which the document collections are extracted. In this paper, we not only reconsider the role of WordNet synonyms, hypernyms, and hyponyms in text classification models, we also consider the role of WordNet meronyms and holonyms. Incorporating these WordNet relationships into a Coordinate Matching classifier, a Naive Bayes classifier, and a Support Vector Machine classifier, we evaluate our approach on six document collections extracted from the Reuters-21578, USENET, and Digi-Trad text corpora. Experimental results show that none of the WordNet relationships were effective at increasing the accuracy of the Naive Bayes classifier. Synonyms, hypernyms, and holonyms were effective at increasing the accuracy of the Coordinate Matching classifier, and hypernyms were effective at increasing the accuracy of the SVM classifier.
Mining financial text documents and understanding the sentiments of individual investors, institutions and markets is an important and challenging problem in the literature. Current approaches to mine sentiments from financial texts largely rely on domain specific dictionaries. However, dictionary based methods often fail to accurately predict the polarity of financial texts. This paper aims to improve the state-of-the-art and introduces a novel sentiment analysis approach that employs the concept of financial and non-financial performance indicators. It presents an association rule mining based hierarchical sentiment classifier model to predict the polarity of financial texts as positive, neutral or negative. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated on a benchmark financial dataset. The model is also compared against other state-of-the-art dictionary and machine learning based approaches and the results are found to be quite promising. The novel use of performance indicators for financial sentiment analysis offers interesting and useful insights.
This paper describes the resource- and system-building efforts of an eight-week Johns Hopkins University Human Language Technology Center of Excellence Summer Camp for Applied Language Exploration (SCALE-2009) on Semantically-Informed Machine Translation (SIMT). We describe a new modality/negation (MN) annotation scheme, the creation of a (publicly available) MN lexicon, and two automated MN taggers that we built using the annotation scheme and lexicon. Our annotation scheme isolates three components of modality and negation: a trigger (a word that conveys modality or negation), a target (an action associated with modality or negation) and a holder (an experiencer of modality). We describe how our MN lexicon was semi-automatically produced and we demonstrate that a structure-based MN tagger results in precision around 86% (depending on genre) for tagging of a standard LDC data set. We apply our MN annotation scheme to statistical machine translation using a syntactic framework that supports the inclusion of semantic annotations. Syntactic tags enriched with semantic annotations are assigned to parse trees in the target-language training texts through a process of tree grafting. While the focus of our work is modality and negation, the tree grafting procedure is general and supports other types of semantic information. We exploit this capability by including named entities, produced by a pre-existing tagger, in addition to the MN elements produced by the taggers described in this paper. The resulting system significantly outperformed a linguistically naive baseline model (Hiero), and reached the highest scores yet reported on the NIST 2009 Urdu-English test set. This finding supports the hypothesis that both syntactic and semantic information can improve translation quality.
Within a Question Answering (QA) framework, Question Context plays a vital role. We define Question Context to be background knowledge that can be used to represent the user’s information need more completely than the terms in the query alone. This paper proposes a novel approach that uses statistical language modeling techniques to develop a semantic Question Context which we then incorporate into the Information Retrieval (IR) stage of QA. Our approach proposes an Aspect-Based Relevance Language Model as basis of the Question Context Model. This model proposes that the sparse vocabulary of a query can be supplemented with semantic information from concepts (or aspects) related to query terms that already exist within the corpus. We incorporate the Aspect-Based Relevance Language Model into Question Context by first obtaining all of the latent concepts that exist in the corpus for a particular question topic. Then, we derive a likelihood of relevance that relates each Context Term (CT) associated with those aspects to the user’s query. Context Terms from the topics with the highest likelihood of relevance are then incorporated into the query language model based on their relevance score values. We use both query expansion and document model smoothing techniques and evaluate our approach using the traditional recall metric. Our results are promising and show significant improvements recall at low levels of precision using the query expansion method.