This paper describes an analogy ontology, a formal representation of some key ideas in analogical processing, that supports the integration of analogical processing with first-principles reasoners. The ontology is based on Gentner's structure-mapping theory, a psychological account of analogy and similarity. The semantics of the ontology are enforced via procedural attachment, using cognitive simulations of structure-mapping to provide analogical processing services. Introduction There is mounting psychological evidence that human cognition centrally involves similarity computations over structured representations, in tasks ranging from high-level visual perception to problem solving, learning, and conceptual change . Understanding how to integrate analogical processing into AI systems seems crucial to creating more humanlike reasoning systems .
This paper describes an analogy ontology, a formal representation of some key ideas in analogical processing, that supports the integration of analogical processing with first-principles reasoners. The ontology is based on Gentner's structure-mapping theory, a psychological account of analogy and similarity. The semantics of the ontology are enforced via procedural attachment, using cognitive simulations of structure-mapping to provide analogical processing services. Queries that include analogical operations can be formulated in the same way as standard logical inference, and analogical processing systems in turn can call on the services of first-principles reasoners for creating cases and validating their conjectures. We illustrate the utility of the analogy ontology by demonstrating how it has been used in three systems: A crisis management analogical reasoner that answers questions about international incidents, a course of action analogical critiquer that provides feedback about military plans, and a comparison question-answering system for knowledge capture.
Nothing in this world is secure. Before you do anything on your new iPhone or iPad, you should lock it down. Even military units are not safe from hackers. The one thing we all have tucked away in our pockets is a phone. It calls people, it texts people, and if you're really fortunate, you can pay for things on the go, browse the web, and throw imaginary flying birds at ominous-looking pigs.
Moral reasoning is important to accurately model as AI systems become ever more integrated into our lives. Moral reasoning is rapid and unconscious; analogical reasoning, which can be unconscious, is a promising approach to model moral reasoning. This paper explores the use of analogical generalizations to improve moral reasoning. Analogical reasoning has already been used to successfully model moral reasoning in the MoralDM model, but it exhaustively matches across all known cases, which is computationally intractable and cognitively implausible for human-scale knowledge bases. We investigate the performance of an extension of MoralDM to use the MAC/FAC model of analogical retrieval over three conditions, across a set of highly confusable moral scenarios.
We present a general architecture for the monitoring and diagnosis of large scale sensor-based systems with real time diagnostic constraints. This architecture is multileveled, combining a single monitoring level based on statistical methods with two model based diagnostic levels. At each level, sources of uncertainty are identified, and integrated methodologies for uncertainty management are developed. The general architecture was applied to the monitoring and diagnosis of a specific nuclear physics detector at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that contained approximately 5000 components and produced over 500 channels of output data. The general architecture is scalable, and work is ongoing to apply it to detector systems one and two orders of magnitude more complex.