In this paper we propose the notion of Assumption-Based Planning. Unlike conformant planning, which attempts to find a plan under all possible completions of the initial state, an assumption-based plan supports the assertion of additional assumptions about the state of the world, simplifying the planning problem. In many practical settings, such plans can be of higher quality than conformant plans. We formalize the notion of assumption-based planning, establishing a relationship between assumption-based and conformant planning, and prove properties of such plans. We further provide for the scenario where some assumptions are more preferred than others. Exploiting the correspondence with conformant planning, we propose a means of computing assumption-based plans via a translation to classical planning. Our translation is an extension of the popular approach proposed by Palacios and Geffner and realized in their T0 planner. We have implemented our planner, A0, as a variant of T0 and tested it on a number of expository domains drawn from the International Planning Competition. Our results illustrate the utility of this new planning paradigm.
In this work we aim to narrow the gap between plan recognition and planning by exploiting the power and generality of recent planning algorithms for recognizing the set G of goals G that explain a sequence of observations given a domain theory. After providing a crisp definition of this set, we show by means of a suitable problem transformation that a goal G belongs to G if there is an action sequence π that is an optimal plan for both the goal G and the goal G extended with extra goals representing the observations. Exploiting this result, we show how the set G can be computed exactly and approximately by minor modifications of existing optimal and suboptimal planning algorithms, and existing polynomial heuristics. Experiments over several domains show that the suboptimal planning algorithms and the polynomial heuristics provide good approximations of the optimal goal set G while scaling up as well as state-of-the-art planning algorithms and heuristics.
Inherent human limitations in teaming environments coupled with complex planning problems spur the integration of intelligent decision support (IDS) systems for human-agent planning. However, prior research in human-agent planning has been limited to dyadic interaction between a single human and a single planning agent. In this paper, we highlight an emerging research area of IDS for human team planning, i.e. environments where the agent works with a team of human planners to enhance the quality of their plans and the ease of making them. We review prior works in human-agent planning and identify research challenges for an agent participating in human team planning.
A model of story generation recently proposed by Riedl and Young casts it as planning, with the additional condition that story characters behave intentionally. This means that characters have perceivable motivation for the actions they take. I show that this condition can be compiled away (in more ways than one) to produce a classical planning problem that can be solved by an off-the-shelf classical planner, more efficiently than by Riedl and Young's specialised planner.