The FLP semantics presented by (Faber, Leone, and Pfeifer 2004) has been widely used to define answer sets, called FLP answer sets, for different types of logic programs such as logic programs with aggregates, description logic programs (dl-programs), Hex programs, and logic programs with first-order formulas (general logic programs). However, it was recently observed that the FLP semantics may produce unintuitive answer sets with circular justifications caused by self-supporting loops. In this paper, we address the circular justification problem for general logic programs by enhancing the FLP semantics with a level mapping formalism. In particular, we extend the Gelfond-Lifschitz three step definition of the standard answer set semantics from normal logic programs to general logic programs and define for general logic programs the first FLP semantics that is free of circular justifications. We call this FLP semantics the well-justified FLP semantics. This method naturally extends to general logic programs with additional constraints like aggregates, thus providing a unifying framework for defining the well-justified FLP semantics for various types of logic programs. When this method is applied to normal logic programs with aggregates, the well-justified FLP semantics agrees with the conditional satisfaction based semantics defined by (Son, Pontelli, and Tu 2007); and when applied to dl-programs, the semantics agrees with the strongly well-supported semantics defined by (Shen 2011).
Linguistic and semantic annotations are important features for text-based applications. However, achieving and maintaining a good quality of a set of annotations is known to be a complex task. Many ad hoc approaches have been developed to produce various types of annotations, while comparing those annotations to improve their quality is still rare. In this paper, we propose a framework in which both linguistic and domain information can cooperate to reason with annotations. The underlying knowledge representation issues are carefully analyzed and solved by studying a higher order logic, which accounts for the cooperation of different sorts of knowledge. Our prototype implements this logic based on a reduction to classical description logics by preserving the semantics, allowing us to benefit from cutting-edge Semantic Web reasoners. An application scenario shows interesting merits of this framework on reasoning with annotations of texts.
In classical logic, nonBoolean fluents, such as the location of an object and the color of a ball, can be naturally described by functions, but this is not the case with the traditional stable model semantics, where the values of functions are pre-defined, and nonmonotonicity of the semantics is related to minimizing the extents of predicates but has nothing to do with functions. We extend the first-order stable model semantics by Ferraris, Lee and Lifschitz to allow intensional functions. The new formalism is closely related to multi-valued nonmonotonic causal logic, logic programs with intensional functions, and other extensions of logic programs with functions, while keeping similar properties as those of the first-order stable model semantics. We show how to eliminate intensional functions in favor of intensional predicates and vice versa, and use these results to encode fragments of the language in the input language of ASP solvers and CSP solvers.
Programming with logic for sophisticated applications must deal with recursion and negation, which have created significant challenges in logic, leading to many different, conflicting semantics of rules. This paper describes a unified language, DA logic, for design and analysis logic, based on the unifying founded semantics and constraint semantics, that support the power and ease of programming with different intended semantics. The key idea is to provide meta constraints, support the use of uncertain information in the form of either undefined values or possible combinations of values, and promote the use of knowledge units that can be instantiated by any new predicates, including predicates with additional arguments.
We provide reformulations and generalizations of both the semantics of logic programs by Faber, Leone and Pfeifer and its extension to arbitrary propositional formulas by Truszczynski. Unlike the previous definitions, our generalizations refer neither to grounding nor to fixpoints, and apply to first-order formulas containing aggregate expressions. Similar to the first-order stable model semantics by Ferraris, Lee and Lifschitz, the reformulations presented here are based on syntactic transformations that are similar to circumscription. The reformulations provide useful insights into the FLP semantics and its relationship to circumscription and the first-order stable model semantics.