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Privacy Amplification by Subsampling: Tight Analyses via Couplings and Divergences

Neural Information Processing Systems

Differential privacy comes equipped with multiple analytical tools for the design of private data analyses. One important tool is the so-called "privacy amplification by subsampling" principle, which ensures that a differentially private mechanism run on a random subsample of a population provides higher privacy guarantees than when run on the entire population. Several instances of this principle have been studied for different random subsampling methods, each with an ad-hoc analysis. In this paper we present a general method that recovers and improves prior analyses, yields lower bounds and derives new instances of privacy amplification by subsampling. Our method leverages a characterization of differential privacy as a divergence which emerged in the program verification community.


The Trade-Offs of Private Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning models leak information about their training data every time they reveal a prediction. This is problematic when the training data needs to remain private. Private prediction methods limit how much information about the training data is leaked by each prediction. Private prediction can also be achieved using models that are trained by private training methods. In private prediction, both private training and private prediction methods exhibit trade-offs between privacy, privacy failure probability, amount of training data, and inference budget. Although these trade-offs are theoretically well-understood, they have hardly been studied empirically. This paper presents the first empirical study into the trade-offs of private prediction. Our study sheds light on which methods are best suited for which learning setting. Perhaps surprisingly, we find private training methods outperform private prediction methods in a wide range of private prediction settings.


Multiparty Differential Privacy via Aggregation of Locally Trained Classifiers

Neural Information Processing Systems

As increasing amounts of sensitive personal information finds its way into data repositories, it is important to develop analysis mechanisms that can derive aggregate information from these repositories without revealing information about individual data instances. Though the differential privacy model provides a framework to analyze such mechanisms for databases belonging to a single party, this framework has not yet been considered in a multi-party setting. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving protocol for composing a differentially private aggregate classifier using classifiers trained locally by separate mutually untrusting parties. The protocol allows these parties to interact with an untrusted curator to construct additive shares of a perturbed aggregate classifier. We also present a detailed theoretical analysis containing a proof of differential privacy of the perturbed aggregate classifier and a bound on the excess risk introduced by the perturbation.


User-Specified Local Differential Privacy in Unconstrained Adaptive Online Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Local differential privacy is a strong notion of privacy in which the provider of the data guarantees privacy by perturbing the data with random noise. In the standard application of local differential differential privacy the distribution of the noise is constant and known by the learner. In this paper we generalize this approach by allowing the provider of the data to choose the distribution of the noise without disclosing any parameters of the distribution to the learner, under the constraint that the distribution is symmetrical. We consider this problem in the unconstrained Online Convex Optimization setting with noisy feedback. In this setting the learner receives the subgradient of a loss function, perturbed by noise, and aims to achieve sublinear regret with respect to some competitor, without constraints on the norm of the competitor.


Distributed Learning without Distress: Privacy-Preserving Empirical Risk Minimization

Neural Information Processing Systems

Distributed learning allows a group of independent data owners to collaboratively learn a model over their data sets without exposing their private data. We present a distributed learning approach that combines differential privacy with secure multi-party computation. We explore two popular methods of differential privacy, output perturbation and gradient perturbation, and advance the state-of-the-art for both methods in the distributed learning setting. In our output perturbation method, the parties combine local models within a secure computation and then add the required differential privacy noise before revealing the model. In our gradient perturbation method, the data owners collaboratively train a global model via an iterative learning algorithm.